are those over which management has control, such as customer service and development of new products
are those over which management has no control, such as technology and political factors
involves actions on the part of senior management to create a plan of action to implement the change.
involves actions on the part of lower-level management to implement and oversee the change
Some people may resist change because of fear, disrupted habits, poor training and lack of purpose, among other things
may not be readily accepted by the workforce.
must involve a message which will be transmitted from a sender to a receiver
Communication can be
(communication spoken by individuals) and
(communication without words)
of communication refers to the flow or direction of communication from the sender to the receiver and can be either formal or informal
The formal communication channel is further divided into
is a commonly used informal channel of communication.
Provision of information
Is more susceptible to distractions
Offers little time to think of the feedback that will be given
Allows for immediate feedbac
Lacks record, unless the conversation was recorded on tape
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