In English, the
are constructed with auxiliaries.
Traditional grammar calls these
This is hopeless.
clearly helps the verb 'collapse' in 'cheap bridges tend to collapse' by expressing a sort of
yet no grammarian calls tend an auxiliary.
In addition, in a sentence like
the auxiliary 'would' has no verb to help, yet everyone agrees that would IS an auxiliary verb.
Five syntactic criteria distinguish the special subclass of auxiliaries from lexical verbs;
The NICER Criteria
all and only the tensed AVs allow 'not' to follow them.
all and only the tensed AVs invert their position relative to the subject NP in closed interrogatives and other auxiliary initial clause constructions.
all and only the tensed AVs have forms suffixed with 'n't'
all and only the tensed Avs and untensed forms in nonfinite clauses allow ellipsis (omission) of the post auxiliary constituent with a free-variable semantic interpretation.
All and only the tensed AVs allow the use of supportive 'do' to reaffirm the truth of a previous clause.
both seem to treat auxiliaries not as verbs but as
Huddleston and Pullum
opt for the
under which auxiliaries are verbs taking complements, and there is one clause per verb.
Nouns are traditionally defined as
Consider nouns such as emptiness, absence, failure etc- could these be confirmed as things?
There are 5 lexical properties that nouns and not other categories share
Singular, Plural, Genitive and Plain.
Functions like subject, object, predicative complement.
Ordinary nouns have these four features:
The special subclass of pronouns have these four:
Traditional grammars tend to treat pronouns as words that
This is wrong. When a personal pronoun stands for something, it stands for the whole NP.
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