1. Define the wilderness Concept?
Wilderness refer to the part of the world where human activity has not and does not affect the landscape and where humans do not reside. Preservationist believes that the wilderness of nature should be maintained.
2. What are the critics made with regards to the use the wilderness concept for nature preservation?
o Ecosystem is dynamic and constantly changing, therefore preservation by maintaining status outdated. o Wilderness is a concept that did not really exist, land had previously been managed by indigenous people o Cannot be applied in various countries, such implementation will differ from countries (US differs from India) o Wilderness is cherished mostly recreational services rather than ecological nature
3. Define the term Communitarian Ethics?
Communitarians argue that an ethic must be based in the values, life experiences, heritage and traditions of a community. Different groups grow up differently.
4. What is the difference between retributive, compensatory and distributive justice
Distributive justice concerns how benefits and burdens are distributed among individuals in society. Retributive justice is concerned with the fair punishment for crimes. Compensatory justice concerns fair compensation for any suffering caused by a crime or any other action
5. What do you understand by the term Environment Pragmatism?
It focuses upon examining the values which society currently holds towards the environment and contribute to bridge gaps between activists and environmental philosophers by looking more closely at ‘real world’ values
6. Blanchard mentioned various types of equity, explain 5 types of equity:
Equality: Equity meaning equality, inequality is inequitable. Need: Fairness implies distribution to whomever is most in need. Ascription: Who has the right to benefit from the resources, dictated by many factors any number of factors, such as age, sex, nationality, residency, etc. Fair procedure: An allocation is fair if it is produced by procedures that are accepted as fair, such as an unbiased lottery, inheritance, first-come-first-served rule, etc Effort expended: A fair distribution depends on how much effort each individual has put in. Money invested: A fair distribution depends on how much money each individual has invested. Results: A fair distribution depends not on what you’ve done, but on what you will do. Demand and preference: the norm that distribution should be to the people who show that they most want to good.
7. DesJardins (2012) outlines three general arguments that have been proposed against extending ethical responsibility to future generations of people. What are they?
• Argument of Ignorance: about the not knowing the needs of future generations, at best they can only be inferred • Disappearing beneficiaries: cannot care for a generation that do not exist yet, no empathy and duties towards them not known… policy • Temporal location: some impacts are felt over wide temporal location and therefore cannot be known, we cannot have responsibilities for consequences that have not yet occurred.
8. List 4 moral Significant traits that can be used to distinguish human from the non-human:
• Rationality • linguistic ability • possession of a soul • intelligence.
9. What do you understand by the term value neutrality?
It refers to the notion that no values of good or bad, right or wrong, like or dislike are necessarily attached to knowledge and actions.
10. What are the three types of aids that exist?
o Systematic Aid: This includes payments made by richer governments to poorer ones either directly or through international institutions such the World Bank. o Emergency Aid: This is mobilised in response to catastrophes and calamities, o Charity Aid: charitable organisations to institutions, projects or individuals directly.
11. Explain the concept of Categorical Imperative as described by Kant
Categorical imperatives is based on the principle that there is a single moral obligation to others based on duty. This moral obligation should be accepted by all rational beings.
12. Which philosopher introduced the concept of Species egalitarian, which ethical approach did he use to justify this?
Taylor introduced the slide this concept and it is based on the Biocentric egalitarian principle
13. What is the relationship between the religion and virtue ethics.
Religions provides a social forum where virtues are framed and can be discussed. If environmental virtues are accepted in some religions it can have a widespread impact worldwide.
14. Describe the Land Ethics
Land ethic states that an action is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. If integrity is not preserved then the action is not considered right
15. Leopold argued that Ecological Necessity and Evolutionary Possibility. Explain both term
Ecological Necessity: refers to the need to preserve the ecology otherwise the human being will continue to destroy the environment Evolutionary Possibility: Human beings should perceive themselves as citizens of the environment and co-operate with the different groups to form and evolve in symbiotic system , rather than being conquerors
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