Right Realism was brought about in the late 70s early 80s
Realist theories were brought about as a response to the failure of criminological theorists to offer up practical and targetted solutions to tackle crime
As a response to the failure of crime theories to offer a clear and practical solution for tackling crime
As a support network for victims of crime
To show sympathy for criminals
To make crime more appealing
James Wilson is the main theorist of right realism
Murray stated in 1990 that the three causes of crime are: Biological Differences/Socialisation and the Underclass and Rational Choice Theory
Biological Differences/Socialisation and the Underclass/Rational Choice Theory
Wilson and Kelling brought forward the 'Broken Windows Theory' which suggested that communities that are run down and lack appealing presentation are more likely to encourage anti social behaviour
Rational Choice Theory
Broken Window Theory
Clarke put forward the theory of rational choice
Right Realists believe that situational crime prevention and target hardening techniques such as, street policing, post coding goods and neighbour watch, are very effective ways that can reduce opportunities for crime.
Situational Crime Prevention and Target Hardening
Constant Police Presences
Longer Jail Sentences and Bigger Fines
Youth Centres and Education
It is too sympathetic toward the criminal
Advocating a zero tolerance policy can give police free rein to discriminate against offenders
Left Realism came about in the 1980s
To fight against the justice system
As a response to right realist's influence on government policies
To support criminals
To disagree with marxists
Lea and Young are the key theorists for Left Realism
Parsons and Murdock
Lea and Young
Marx and Engles
Wilson and Kelling
Left Realists believe that the three causes of crime are: Marginalisation/Relative Deprivation and Subcultures. A good way to remember this for the exam is that is spells MRS :)
Misbehaviour/Mental Illness/Lack of respect
Left Realists focus on the effect of crime on the individual rather than society. Right Realists focus on the effect that crime has on society as a whole!
Left Realists have been criticised for being too deterministic and assuming that all those from poor backgrounds commit crime, this is simply not the case.
It is deterministic. It ignores the fact that not all poor people commit crime.
It ignores the individual.
Left Realists believe that crime is a real problem and affects the vulnerable in society, specifically, the poor and women.
The poor and women
The rich and men
Successfully employed people
Children and animals
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