The kidney performs two major functions to assist in this balance. The first is to reabsorb and return to the body's circulation any bicarbonate from the urinary filtrate; the second is to excrete acid in the urine. Therefore, options A, C, and D are inco
Excrete acid in the lungs
Excrete bicarbonate in the urine
Return bicarbonate to the body's circulation
Return acid to the body's circulation
To replace any lost bicarbonate, the renal tubular cells generate new bicarbonate through a variety of chemical reactions. This newly generated bicarbonate is then reabsorbed by the tubules and returned to the body. This makes options A, B, and C incorrec
The juxtaglomerular cells generate new bicarbonate.
Renal tubular cells generate new bicarbonate.
The juxtaglomerular cells secrete new bicarbonate into the blood.
The renal tubules secrete new bicarbonate into the urine.
Renin is a hormone directly involved in the control of arterial blood pressure. It is essential for proper functioning of the glomerulus. The other options are not correct.
“Renin is involved in venous blood pressure and controls the flow of blood through the tubules.”
“Renin is directly involved in the control of arterial blood pressure and it is essential for proper functioning of the glomerulus.”
“Renin is involved in venous blood pressure and it is essential for proper functioning of the glomerulus.”
“Renin is directly involved in the control of arterial blood pressure and the flow of blood through the pyramids of the kidney.”
The ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra make up the rest of the urinary tract. The longer male urethra passes through the prostate gland, which may enlarge or become infected, a problem often associated with advancing age. The patient's advancing age do
Partially obstructed ureter
Decreased bladder function
Increased kidney function
Control of bladder emptying is learned control over the urethral sphincter. Once it is established, a functioning nervous system is necessary to maintain control.
“Your mother's age has a lot to do with it.”
“I don't know, but there are lots of medicines we can try to fix it.”
“After control of the bladder is learned, you must have a functioning nervous system to maintain it.”
“This happens sometimes and no one is quite sure why.”
In the female, the urethra is a very short tube that leads from the bladder to an area populated by normal bacterial flora including Escherichia coli, which can cause frequent bladder infections or cystitis. Recurrent UTIs do not indicate the woman has mu
The woman has multiple sexual partners.
The woman does not clean herself as she should.
The woman takes too many bubble baths.
The woman has a short urethra.
Maintaining the volume and composition of body fluids within normal ranges includes clearing nitrogenous wastes from protein metabolism; maintaining acid–base balance and electrolyte levels; excreting various drugs and drug metabolites; regulating vitamin
Acting as a diuretic for the body
Clearing nitrogenous wastes from protein metabolism
Regulating red blood cell production
Regulating blood pressure
The nephron widens at the distal convoluted tubule, then flows into the collecting ducts, which meet at the renal pelves. The collecting ducts do not meet in the loop of Henle, Bowman's capsule, or distal convoluted tubule.
Distal convoluted tubule
Loop of Henle
The two arterioles around the glomerulus work together to closely regulate the flow of fluid into the glomerulus, increasing or decreasing pressure on either side of the glomerulus as needed. The loop of Henle is part of the nephron. The nephron does not
The ascending and descending parts of the loop of Henle
As sodium is actively moved out of the filtrate, it takes chloride ions and water with it. Sodium does not take calcium, magnesium, or potassium ions with it.
Carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme, speeds the process of carbon dioxide and water combining to form carbonic acid. The carbonic acid immediately dissociates to form sodium bicarbonate, using a sodium ion from the renal tubule and a free hydrogen ion (an acid)
Chloride is an important negatively charged ion that helps to maintain electrical neutrality with the movement of cations across the cell membrane. Chloride is primarily reabsorbed in the loop of Henle, where it promotes the movement of sodium out of the
The loop of Henle
The distal convolute tubule
The fine-tuning of potassium levels occurs in the distal convoluted tubule, where aldosterone activates the sodium–potassium exchange, leading to a loss of potassium. Therefore, options A, C, and D are not correct.
Proximal convoluted tubule
Whenever blood flow or oxygenation to the nephron is decreased (due to hemorrhage, shock, heart failure, or hypotension), the hormone erythropoietin is also released from the juxtaglomerular cells. Therefore, options A, B, and D are not correct.
The countercurrent mechanism
The juxtaglomerular cells
Erythropoietin is the only known factor that can regulate the rate of red blood cell production. When a patient develops renal failure and the production of erythropoietin drops, the production of red blood cells also falls and the patient becomes anemic.
Increased platelet count
Increased white blood cell count
选择要在Apple App Store上查看的Topgrade应用程序。