An astronomical instrument used to measure the altitude of the sun or stars.
The amount of money or property that a company or a person uses in carrying on a business; national or individual wealth as produced by industry and available for reinvestment in the production of goods.
The practice, taught by the Catholic Church, that eternal punishment for sin may be lessened by doing good works, known as "doing penance."
Distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees. A degree of latitude is about 69 miles (111 km).
Distance east or west on the earth's surface, measured in degrees from a certain meridian (line from the North Pole to the South Pole). Usually the meridian in Greenwich, England, known as the Prime Meridian, is used as a starting point.
The economic system prevailing in Europe in the 1500s and 1600s that favored a balance of exports over imports, national wealth being measured by the amount of gold and silver possessed. A nation's agriculture, industry, and trade were regulated with that end in view.
A soldier hired for pay by a foreign state.
A religious movement in Europe during the 1500s and 1600s that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
The great revival of art and learning in Europe during the 1300s, 1400s, and 1500s.
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