Factors that must be present in order to transmit an infection include a host with a portal of entry, a mode of transmission, and a reservoir. Colonization is not one of these factors.
Portal of entry
Mode of transmission
Standard Precautions implies that contact with bodily secretions, excretions, and moist mucous membranes and tissues (excluding perspiration) is potentially infectious. Always wear gloves when coming into contact with such material. Other personal protect
Use personal protective equipment as needed for client care.
Wear gloves when touching client excretions or secretions.
Sneeze into your sleeve or into a tissue that you throw away.
Remain 3 feet away from any client who has an infection.
Always wear a gown when performing hygiene on clients.
In order to be effective, antimicrobial therapy must use the appropriate drug in a sufficient dose, for a sufficient length of time, and given via the appropriate route. Some antimicrobials do require monitoring for peak and trough levels, but not all.
Standardized peak levels
Sufficient length of treatment
Proper route of administration
A client with suspected TB is admitted to Airborne Precautions, which includes a negative-airflow room and special N95 or PAPR masks to be worn when providing care. A 3-foot distance is required for Droplet Precautions. Chlorhexidine is used for clients w
Maintain a distance of 3 feet from the client at all times.
Order specialized masks/respirators for caregiving.
Other than wearing gloves, no special actions are needed.
Wash hands with chlorhexidine after providing care
Admit the client to a negative-airflow room.
Older adults have several age-related changes making them more susceptible to infection, including decreased immune function, decreased cough and gag reflex, decreased acidity of gastric secretions, thinning skin, and fewer lymphocytes and antibodies.
Decreased cough and gag reflexes
Thinning skin that is less protective
Diminished acidity of gastric secretions
Increased lymphocytes and antibodies
Age-related decrease in immune function
Comfort measures appropriate for this client include offering frequent cool drinks, and changing linens or the gown when damp. Fever is a defense mechanism, and antipyretics should be administered only when the client is uncomfortable. Ice bags can help c
Offer cool fluids to the client frequently.
Provide a fan to help cool the client.
Place ice bags in the armpits and groin.
Change the client’s gown and linens when damp.
Administer antipyretics around the clock.
The skin and mucous membranes are the most important barrier against infection. The other options are also barriers, but are considered secondary to skin and mucous membranes.
Colonization by host bacteria
Skin and mucous membranes
All methods will help prevent infection; however, health care workers’ lack of hand hygiene is the biggest cause of healthcare-associated infections. The manager can start with a hand hygiene audit to see if this is a contributing cause.
Teaching staff members about infection control methods
Ensuring clients are placed in appropriate isolation
Establishing a policy to remove urinary catheters quickly
Auditing staff members’ hand hygiene practices
Biofilms are a complex group of bacteria that function within a slimy gel on surfaces such as teeth. Mechanical disruption (i.e., toothbrushing with friction) is the best way to control them. The other answers are not accurate.
“Toothbrushes last longer than oral swabs.”
“It’s easier to clean all surfaces with a brush.”
“Oral care is important to all our clients.”
“It mechanically removes biofilm on teeth.”
Prior to administering antibiotics, the nurse obtains the ordered cultures. Broad-spectrum antibiotics will be administered until the culture and sensitivity results are known. Antipyretics are given if the client is uncomfortable; fever is a defense mech
Give an antipyretic.
Place the client in isolation.
Obtain specified cultures.
Hospitalized clients who have three or more stools a day for 2 or more days are suspected of having infection with Clostridium difficile. The nurse should inform the practitioner and request stool cultures. Frequent perianal care is important and can be d
Consult with the provider about obtaining stool cultures.
Place the client on NPO status until the diarrhea resolves.
Request a prescription for an anti-diarrheal medication.
Delegate frequent perianal care to unlicensed assistive personnel.
Shaking dirty linens (or even clean linens) can spread microbes through the air. Placing linens on the floor contaminates the floor surface and can lead to infection spread via shoes. The other actions are appropriate. If the client has a scalp infection
Wearing gloves when providing perianal care
Rinsing the client’s commode pan after use
Not using gloves while combing the client’s hair
Shaking dirty linens and placing them on the floor
Only Standard Precautions are needed. No other special precautions are required for the “client” because inhalation anthrax is not spread person to person.
Consistent practice of proper hand hygiene is the best method to prevent infection, as most healthcare-associated infections are due to staff members’ contaminated hands. Assessing the client and monitoring laboratory values will help the nurse catch sign
Teaching visitors not to visit if they are ill
Consistently using appropriate hand hygiene
Monitoring daily white blood cell counts
Assessing skin and mucous membranes
This client has manifestations of smallpox, a public health emergency, and should be placed on Airborne Precautions first before other care measures are implemented.
Obtain cultures of the lesions.
Place the client on Airborne Precautions.
Provide comfort measures for the rash.
Prepare to administer antibiotics.
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