Grammatical competency varied as a function of age
The older they are, the easier they learnt English
They could not learn English
They spoke English better than their native language
Is a way in which we become fluent in our native language.
Newborns open and close their eyes when they hear any speech like sounds
Newborns cry when they hear their native language for the first few weeks
It has not yet been studied
Newborns suck harder (or softer) to hear speech relative to non-speech sounds and their native language
The English language has approximately 44 phonemes (out of 600 consonant phonemes and 200 vowel phonemes).
The individual elements that make up words in languages
A unique way to structure sentences
How words visually look
Words only newborns can hear
We must learn the phonemes that make up our native language. In adults, the perception of phonemes is categorical e.g. We hear pa or ba but not a hybrid.
Different languages have different phonemic inventories
Languages are too complex to be innately stored
Language is purely environmentally learnt
Different languages are more innate than others
DeCaspar & Fifer (1980) - Newborns suck harder (or softer) to hear their mother read a familar story they heard in the last 6 weeks of pregnancy. Newborns suck harder (or softer) to hear speech relative to non-speech sounds (Vouloumanos & Werker, 2007) an
Vouloumanos & Werker (2007)
Elmas et al. (1991)
Moon et al. (1993)
DeCaspar & Fifer (1980)
1 month old infants perceive speech sounds categorically
Infants didn't alter their sucker behaviour when the novel sound did not cross the boundary (VOT 0 to +20)
Infants sucked harder (dishabituated) only when the novel sound crossed the boundary (VOT +20 to +40)
All of the above
After 2 years
After 4 years
After 3 years
Over the first year of life
That live social interactions are important for learning language
That live social interactions are NOT important for learning language
They were unable to disciminate English speech sounds not present in English
They were unable to discriminate sounds not present in English
If one phoneme always followed another (e.g. In a word) it has a high transitional probability. If phonemes cross word boundaries then it will have a lower transitional probability.
11 month olds
9 month olds
10 month olds
8 month olds
Motherese plays a role in word learning (used to mark new information in speech).
Mothers tended to speak more clearly to adults than the infants
Mothers tended to lower their pitch on target words
Mothers tended to place the target words at the end of the sentence and stressed them more (an increased pitch) when speak to infants relative to adults.
Mothers tended to place target words at the start of the sentence
Motherese is a universal language for talking to babies.
Help infants retain words in memory (Singh et al., 2009)
Help infants segment words (transitional probabilities; Thiessen et al., 2005)
Be more attention grabbing than ADS (Pegg et al., 1992)
This form of communication disappears within the infant's first month of life (Ferrari et al., 2009)
Exaggerated emotional exchanges e.g. Exaggerated lipsmacking, and sustained mutual gaze
All of the above
Symbolic - language symbols are arbitrary
Grammatical - language is structured according to rules meaning an infinite number of sentences may be constructed
Varies with culture - there is a biological basis for languages, it is acquired in the same way around the world
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