None of the above are true.
All of the above are true.
Sympathetic nerves inhibit the bladder body and excite the bladder neck and urethra
Pudendal (somatic) nerves excite the bladder body and the external urethral sphincter.
Pelvic parasympathetic nerves arise at the sacral spinal cord level and excite the bladder and urethra.
Nathan first described sensations of awareness during bladder filling.
Sensations of awareness during bladder distension can be mapped to the urinary bladder.
All are correct.
It has been speculated the sense of imminent micturition arises in the urethra.
Bladder filling has been shown to correlate with episodic bursts of sensation and afferent discharge.
characterized by responses to receptive field stimulation.
variable in both morphology and function depending upon species.
silent initially but sensitized during inflammatory processes.
All of the above.
classified according to ability to respond to a diverse range of chemical mediators.
(d) be resolved easily.
(b) release a number of inflammatory mediators.
(c) develop rapidly and be relatively short lived.
(a) open ion channels in the nerve terminals.
In animal models colonic inflammation rarely leads to bladder dysfunction.
None are true.
This is an example of cross-organ sensitization.
Cross-organ sensitization only occurs between the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary bladder.
The mediators, which are responsible for these conditions, have been well described.
the majority express acetylcholinesterase enzyme.
release of both acetylcholine and ATP result in smooth muscle contraction.
acetylcholine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) appear to provide the majority of the excitatory input.
additional substances released from efferent nerves include nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.
all are correct.
alpha-1 adrenergic mechanisms control blood pressure and tissue blood flow.
beta-3 receptor agonists, via effects on a number of sites, are a promising treatment for overactive bladder.
reflex bladder activity can be modulated by alpha-1 adrenergic mechanisms.
the beta-3 adrenergic receptors are present at a number of sites (both peripherally and centrally).
All are correct
(c) Purinergic neurotransmission plays an important role in bladder overactivity and bladder pain
b and c are true
(a) It is the main excitatory neurotransmitter for bladder contraction in humans.
(b) It can activate two main families of purinergic receptors: P2X and P2Y
bladder accommodation is dependent upon activation of sympathetic pathways.
the sympathetic reflex provides negative feedback.
intravesical pressure measurements are low when below the voiding threshold.
all are true.
bladder accommodation is dependent upon quiescence of parasympathetic efferent pathways.
(a) the urothelium plays an important role in accommodating urine storage.
(c) increase of urothelial-mediators during bladder filling can influence smooth muscle tone.
(d) the urothelial surface cells change shape during bladder filling.
(b) the urothelium is only a barrier and exhibits no other functions.
a, c, and d are correct.
activation of pudendal motoneurons.
all of the above.
increased outlet resistance.
activation of afferent input from the urethra or pelvic floor that leads to closure of the urethral outlet.
activation of external urethral sphincter motoneurons.
(d) a better treatment compared with posterior tibial nerve stimulation.
(c) effective by modulation of central nervous system pathways
(b) an effective treatment for non-obstructive urinary retention
(a) an effective treatment for refractory overactive bladder
a-c are correct.
none are true.
reflex voiding only occurs in the normal adult.
relaxation of the urethral smooth muscle during micturition is achieved by release of acetylcholine.
initial expulsion of urine consists of initial contraction of the urethral sphincter.
switching between bladder storage and emptying can occur involuntarily (reflex emptying) or voluntarily.
(c) de Groat
(d) increased urethral afferent activation promoting bladder emptying.
a and d are correct
the dorsal pontine tegmentum.
the M region.
the pontine micturition center.
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