is a wound healing disorder.
frequently spontaneously recovers (30% to 50% of the time).
is associated with Dupuytren contracture in 40% of men.
is an autoimmune disease.
may degenerate into cancer.
the substance of the corpora cavernosa.
the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpora cavernosa.
the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpus spongiosum.
the substance of the corpus spongiosum.
10% chance of getting worse.
70% chance of getting worse.
80% chance of staying the same.
40% chance of spontaneous improvement of deformity.
10% or less chance of spontaneous improvement of deformity.
1% to 3%
11% to 16%
is a predictive factor for the need for surgical treatment.
can be reliably identified on physical examination.
is associated with successful intralesional injection therapy.
can be found in 50% to 60% of men with PD.
is not an indication of stable, mature disease.
is frequently associated with penile shortening.
is typically resolved by successful surgery.
correlates with degree of erect curvature.
has no association with relationship issues with the patient's partner.
should include direct assessment of curvature following injection of vasoactive agent.
should include measurement of stretched penile length.
should include assessment of the patient's palms.
can be supported with a picture of the erect penis by a smartphone.
should include measurement of plaque size with calipers.
penile sensory integrity.
erectile response to vasoactive penile injection.
penile vascular flow parameters.
penile deformity when erect.
Improved penile blood flow
Elevated local levels of nitric oxide (NO)
Anti-transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)
high success rate.
oral vitamin E or potassium para-aminobenzoate (Potaba).
penile prosthesis with penile straightening.
vacuum constriction device.
intralesional verapamil injections.
greater potential for loss of erect length.
diminished risk of postoperative ED.
better sensory protection.
less shortening compared with grafting.
to enhance cicatrix contracture.
to encourage straight healing.
to encourage partner participation.
to preserve vascular integrity.
to prevent shortening and possibly recover some lost length.
should be used for 3 or more hours/day for optimum results.
results appear dose-related.
encourages tissue remodeling.
increases or preserves postoperative length.
increases the risk of sensory change.
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