is a wound healing disorder.
may degenerate into cancer.
frequently spontaneously recovers (30% to 50% of the time).
is an autoimmune disease.
is associated with Dupuytren contracture in 40% of men.
the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpus spongiosum.
the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpora cavernosa.
the substance of the corpus spongiosum.
the substance of the corpora cavernosa.
40% chance of spontaneous improvement of deformity.
70% chance of getting worse.
10% or less chance of spontaneous improvement of deformity.
80% chance of staying the same.
10% chance of getting worse.
1% to 3%
11% to 16%
is associated with successful intralesional injection therapy.
can be found in 50% to 60% of men with PD.
is not an indication of stable, mature disease.
can be reliably identified on physical examination.
is a predictive factor for the need for surgical treatment.
is typically resolved by successful surgery.
has no association with relationship issues with the patient's partner.
correlates with degree of erect curvature.
is frequently associated with penile shortening.
can be supported with a picture of the erect penis by a smartphone.
should include direct assessment of curvature following injection of vasoactive agent.
should include measurement of stretched penile length.
should include measurement of plaque size with calipers.
should include assessment of the patient's palms.
penile vascular flow parameters.
penile deformity when erect.
erectile response to vasoactive penile injection.
penile sensory integrity.
Elevated local levels of nitric oxide (NO)
Anti-transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)
Improved penile blood flow
high success rate.
vacuum constriction device.
intralesional verapamil injections.
penile prosthesis with penile straightening.
oral vitamin E or potassium para-aminobenzoate (Potaba).
diminished risk of postoperative ED.
greater potential for loss of erect length.
less shortening compared with grafting.
better sensory protection.
to encourage straight healing.
to prevent shortening and possibly recover some lost length.
to encourage partner participation.
to enhance cicatrix contracture.
to preserve vascular integrity.
results appear dose-related.
encourages tissue remodeling.
increases or preserves postoperative length.
increases the risk of sensory change.
should be used for 3 or more hours/day for optimum results.
选择要在Apple App Store上查看的Topgrade应用程序。