Substances with covalent bonds can either be...?
Simple molecules or giant structures
How are simple molecular substances formed?
The atoms form very strong covalent bonds to form very small molecules for several atoms
The forces of attraction between these molecules is very weak, what is the result of this?
They have very low melting and boiling points
The molecules are easily parted from eachother
What are giant covalent substances called?
They are similar to giant ionic substances but without charged ions
All the atoms are bonded to eachother by strong covalent bonds, they have high melting and boiling points but what dont they do?
What are the main examples of these?
Diamond and graphite
They are both made from only carbon atoms and silicon dioxide
How is the rigid structure formed in diamond?
Each carbon atom form four covalent bonds, this makes it the hardest natural substance
What can it be used for?
What does delocalise mean?
Each carbon atom only forms three covalent bonds which create layers that can...?
Slide over eachother
What is the result of this?
It is soft and slippery, there are weak intermolecular forces between the layers
What can it do that no other non-metal can?
Conduct heat and electricity
How can it do this?
Each carbon atom has one delocalised electron and it is these that make it a good conductor
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