onsequences: The third column is for the negative feelings and dysfunctional behaviors that ensued. The negative thoughts of the second column are seen as a connecting bridge between the situation and the distressing feelings.
Activating event: The client recognises an event that ultimately leads to some type of high emotional response or negative dysfunctional thinking.
Belief: In the second column, the client writes down the negative thoughts that occurred to them.
Negative Automatic Thoughts, The Cognitive Triad, Negative Self Schemas, Errors in Logic
Negative thoughts about the self, the world and the future that interact with each other and interfer with normal cognitive processing. They are automatic and spontaneous. Can lead to distorted perceptions, memories and problem solving with the person becoming obsessed with negative thoughts.
Are a set of beliefs and expectations about themselves that are negative and pessimistic.
• Magnification: exaggerating the importance of undesirable events. E.g., if you scrape a bit of paint work on your car and, therefore, see yourself as totally awful driver.
• Selective abstraction: Focusing on a single aspect of a situation and ignoring others: E.g., you feel responsible for your team losing a football match even though you are just one of the players on the field.
• Overgeneralization: drawing broad negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event. E.g., you get a D for an exam when you normally get straight As and you, therefore, think you are stupid.
• Minimisation: underplaying the significance of an event. E.g., you get praised by your teachers for an excellent term’s work, but you see this as trivial
• Arbitrary interference: Drawing conclusions on the basis of sufficient or irrelevant evidence: for example, thinking you are worthless because an open air concert you were going to see has been rained off.
• Personalisation: Attributing the negative feelings of others to yourself. E.g., your teacher looks really cross when he comes into the room, so he must be cross with you.
As a teacher, and does not think that a warm personal relationship with a client is essential.
Unlike Ellis, Beck stresses the importance of the quality of the relationship.
It is highly directive, persuasive and confrontive. Whereas Beck's cognitive therapy places more emphasis on the client discovering misconceptions about themselves.
are the conditions we think we must meet in order for other people to accept us as worthy of their love or positive regard. As children, we learn that there are certain things we do that please our parents or caregivers, and we strive to do those things.
Rogers described the organismic self is the true self; it is there when we are born and it naturally strives towards growth, maturity and self-actualisation. If it is allowed to grow and flourish, it knows what it needs both from its environment and from other people (i.e. our relationships).
Actualizing tendency is a term coined by Rogers to describe an inherent tendency within ourselves to grow and reach our full potential. This is a priori theory which depicts a fundamental construct of human nature- that we are all born with the ability to do great things and develop into the best versions of ourselves.
If a person is operating from an internal locus of evaluation, then they trust their own instincts – that is, they use their organismic valuing process. However, many people operate from an external locus of evaluation; this means that they introject the values of others, often parents or significant others, through conditions of worth acquired in childhood. ‘People often judge themselves according to whether others find them acceptable or wanting’
Some people's assumptions about themselves are irrational guiding them to act and react in ways that are inappropriate and prejudice their chances of happiness and success.
Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy - Albert Ellis 1950s
Cognitive Therapy in the 1960s
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