If a drug is very lipophilic it will be able to travel through phospholipid membranes easily and so little of the drug will remain in the plasma, giving Vd a large value.
Before it reaches the systemic circulation
As it crosses the first membrane
During its first time in the systemic circulation
When it first passes through the heart
The toxic metabolite of Paracetamol is called
and is formed in an overdose, when the normal conjunction pathways are saturated and more of the drug is metabolised by
Normally the toxic metabolite would be broken down by
However in an overdose this becomes depleted.
For treatment, if it has been less than two hours give activated charcoal to 'mop up' the drug or you can give
Which stimulates the synthesis of
to speed the metabolism of the toxic substance.
No gall bladder
Impaired gut absorption
pH of the Drug
Plasma Protein binding
In the Distal Tubule, the outward movement of water means that the concentration of the drug in the tubule increases. This generates a
This means that the drug will want to move
the tubule. Drugs which are lipid soluble
move out, but those which are polar
The pH of the urine is important as the pH of the environment a drug is in can affect the amount of drug which is
This can be used to 'trap' drugs in the urine by ionising them so that they cannot pass through the membrane to be reabsorbed. This is useful when someone has had an overdose
change the pH of the urine.
2, 7, 8, 10
2, 7, 9, 10
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