Analysis of coral bleaching
Tree ring analysis
The female gamete of plants - covered in layers of protein.
The male gamete of plants - covered in layers of protein.
A molecule of protein found in leaves of plants.
Plants in the environment you wish to study.
Sediment cores e.g. peat boys, at different depths.
The plants around at the time give us an idea of the climate conditions.
The proteins tell us about the climate when the plant was around.
We can compare the pollen to plants that are present now.
Pollen is produced in vast amounts.
They have a tough outer layer so are resistant to decay.
Each pollen grain is unique to its plant so scientists can identify the species.
The pollen grains deteriorate quickly.
The number of rings it has divided by 3.
The number of rings it has multiplied by 2.
The number of rings it has.
The tree was planted that year.
The tree didn't grow much that year.
The tree grew a lot that year.
A narrower ring.
A tall tree.
A thicker ring.
The tree grows taller each year.
A new layer of xylem vessels is produced each year by cell division.
A new layer of bark is produced each year.
Drier and colder.
Warmer and drier.
Warmer and wetter.
The equipment they used 400 years ago was not as accurate as what we use now.
Data records were not kept 400 years ago.
Measure number of bubbles in a given piece of ice.
Measure ratio of hydrogen ions in air when water froze.
Measure ratio of oxygen isotopes in air trapped in bubbles when the water froze to predict CO2 concentration in air at time of freezing.
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