Any time an aircraft is developing lift, air flows over the wingtip to form wingtip vortices.
operating at high airspeeds
Heavy aircraft, in a clean configuration, flying at low airspeeds with high angles of attack, generate the strongest vortices.
light, dirty, and fast
heavy, dirty, and fast
heavy, clean, and slow
Wingtip vortices tend to sink below the flight path of the aircraft which generated them.
rise into the traffic pattern
sink below the aircraft generating turbulence
rise into the takeoff or landing path of a crossing runway
sink into the flight path of aircraft operating below the aircraft generating the turbulence.
rise from a crossing runway into the takeoff or landing path
rise into the traffic pattern area surrounding the airport
A light, quartering tailwind is the most hazardous because it can move the upwind vortex over the runway and forward into the landing zone.
light, quartering headwind
light, quartering tailwind
Because wake turbulence tends to sink, an aircraft that is a large aircraft should stay above the large aircraft’s flight path and land beyond its touchdown point.
above the large aircraft’s final approach path and landing before the large aircraft’s touchdown point
below the large aircraft’s final approach path and landing before the large aircraft’s touchdown point.
above the large aircraft’s final approach path and landing beyond the large aircraft’s touchdown point.
Because wake turbulence tends to sink and drift downwind, an aircraft should stay above and upwind of the preceding aircraft.
below and downwind from the heavy aircraft
above and upwind from the heavy aircraft
below and upwind from the heavy aircraft
Vortices (wake turbulence) are generated at an airplane’s wingtips whenever the wings are producing lift. Wingtip vortices tend to sink below the flight path of the generating airplane. Therefore, remaining above the glide path and landing beyond the touc
Stay above its final approach flight path all the way to touchdown
Stay well below its final approach flight path and land at least 2,000 feet behind
Stay below and to one side of its final approach flight path
Wake turbulence vortices are a by-product of lift. They move outward, upward and around each wingtip.
Outward, upward, and around each tip.
Inward, upward, and around each tip.
Inward, upward, and counterclockwise.
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