decrease in urine production and increase in bladder capacity.
increase in bladder capacity and no change in voided volume.
increase in bladder capacity and decrease in voiding frequency.
decrease in voided volume and increase in voiding frequency.
increase in urine production and increase in voiding frequency.
Higher Pdetmax is observed in female infants only.
Higher Pdetmax is observed in male infants only.
Higher Pdetmax is observed in both male and female infants.
There is no difference compared with adults.
Lower Pdetmax is observed in infants compared with adults.
Neurologic control occurs at different levels of the central nervous system from spinal cord to brainstem.
Development of direct volitional control over the bladder-sphincter complex occurs.
Micturition is initiated with a full bladder by a simple spinal cord reflex.
Micturition does not occur during sleep.
Innervation of the bladder involves both the central somatic and the autonomic nervous system.
the Vincent curtsy sign.
small bladder capacity.
the hold maneuver.
all of the above.
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
Small bladder capacity with incontinence
Hyperreflexic bladder with reduced bladder capacity
None of the above
Small bladder capacity with frequent voiding
Large bladder capacity with poor bladder emptying
Urinary tract infection (UTI)
All of the above
Radiologic studies of the upper urinary tract are not necessary.
A urodynamic study is warranted for appropriate management of any underlying bladder dysfunction.
Surgical intervention is a consideration when the child is older.
The risk of breakthrough UTI is minimal on prophylactic antibiotic therapy.
There is a high rate of spontaneous resolution of the VUR.
Radiograph of lumbar spine
Ambulatory urodynamic study
Detrusor response may be inhibited during conventional fill urodynamic studies.
Conventional fill studies are performed during ambulatory urodynamics.
Urodynamic studies are used to describe the physiologic parameters involved in the bladder mechanics during voiding only.
Natural fill urodynamics can only be performed via a suprapubic catheter.
During video-urodynamics the child is allowed to run freely within a private cubicle.
pelvic floor rehabilitation.
Reduced functional bladder capacity
Poor bladder compliance
Low leak-point pressure
Marked reduction in bladder emptying efficiency
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