The majority of reflux detected later in life occurs in females.
Antenatally detected reflux is usually low grade in boys when compared with that in girls.
Antenatally detected reflux is usually bilateral in boys when compared with that in girls.
When reflux is detected antenatally, renal impairment is frequently present at birth and is likely due to congenital dysplasia.
Antenatally detected reflux is associated with a male preponderance.
African infants and white infants have a similar incidence of reflux diagnosed on the basis of antenatal hydronephrosis.
The disparity in the incidence of vesicoureteral reflux with respect to race becomes clearer in adulthood.
The frequency of detected vesicoureteral reflux is lower in female children of African descent.
The incidence of vesicoureteral reflux is equal in children of all races.
There is a clear understanding regarding the predisposition of reflux because many of the studies have included patients from different countries around the world.
It is reasonable to prescribe antibiotic prophylaxis while the decision to diagnose sibling reflux or not takes place.
Siblings who are younger than 5 years of age with normal imaging studies of the kidneys can be managed on the basis of clinical judgment, and it is not absolutely necessary to obtain a voiding cystogram.
Siblings younger than 5 years of age who present with cortical renal defects have the most to lose by febrile UTIs in the presence of vesicoureteral reflux.
On the basis of clinical judgment and the presence or absence of UTI, the patient’s age should be taken into account in regard to the decision to proceed with diagnostic intervention to diagnose sibling reflux.
Once sibling reflux is diagnosed, the indications for correction are different from the indications for treating reflux in the general pediatric population diagnosed after UTI.
longitudinal muscle of the intravesical ureter results in an inadequate valvular mechanism.
circumferential muscle of the intravesical ureter results in an inadequate valvular mechanism.
longitudinal and circumferential muscles of the intravesical ureter results in an inadequate valvular mechanism.
longitudinal muscle of the extravesical ureter results in an inadequate valvular mechanism.
circumferential muscle of the extravesical ureter results in an inadequate valvular mechanism.
3 : 1
2 : 1
4 : 1
1 : 1
Gradual bladder decompensation and myogenic failure result from increasing amounts of residual urine.
None of the above apply.
All of the above apply.
Gradual bladder decompensation and myogenic failure result from incomplete emptying.
Constriction of the urinary sphincter occurs during voiding in a voluntary form of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia.
The most common cause of anatomic bladder obstruction in the pediatric population is posterior urethral valves, and vesicoureteral reflux is present in a great majority of these children.
A sacral dimple or hairy patch on the lower back is not a significant finding in regard to evaluation and treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.
The most common structural obstruction in male and female patients is the presence of a ureterocele at the bladder neck.
Anatomic obstruction of the bladder is a common cause of secondary vesicoureteral reflux in female patients.
Patients with neurofunctional etiology for secondary vesicoureteral reflux benefit from immediate surgical intervention to try to correct vesicoureteral reflux.
all of the above.
decreases in bladder wall compliance.
none of the above.
All of the above
None of the above
“curtseying” behavior in girls.
a and c only.
all of the above.
(b) dilating the urethral sphincter.
(a) damping uninhibited bladder contractions.
(c) lowering intravesical pressures.
40 cm H2O.
60 cm H2O.
10 cm H2O.
80 cm H2O.
20 cm H2O.
All of the above
elevating intravesical pressures.
distorting and weakening the ureterovesical junction.
The Dwoskin and Perlmutter system
The International Classification system
The National Classification system
The Heikel and Parkkulainen system
The Dwoskin and Parkkulainen system
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