low urethral resistance with decreased bladder compliance.
urethral incompetence in a T12 spinal cord injury.
proximal urethral loss secondary to long-standing indwelling Foley catheter.
refractory stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after failed midurethral sling and bulking agents.
urethral incompetence and large urethral diverticulum.
The female urethra is composed of four separate tissue layers, and the middle seromuscular layer is most important in enhancing the urethral sphincter mechanism during voiding.
The Valsalva pressure of the bladder exceeds the resting closing pressure of the internal sphincter.
The PVS is placed at the bladder neck to provide adequate urethral coaptation at rest and to decrease urethral responsiveness to abdominal pressure.
The fast-twitch fibers of the external sphincter are responsible for sudden voluntary guarding reflex, and slow-twitch fibers provide passive control through the involuntary guarding reflex.
The levator ani, urethropelvic ligament, and round ligament provide needed support to the bladder neck and undersurface of the bladder.
Porcine small intestinal submucosa has less tensile strength than cadaveric fascia lata.
The estimated risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by an allograft sling is about 1 in 1,660,000.
The ideal material has minimal tissue reaction and complete biocompatibility.
Synthetic materials are associated with high erosion rates during use for bladder neck PVS.
Stiffness and maximal load failure are the same between freeze-dried fascia lata and solvent dehydrated and dermal grafts.
a and d
(b) Preoperative Valsalva leak point pressure is a reliable predictor of outcomes after sling surgery.
(d) In the SiSTER trial, cure rates and voiding symptoms were greater for the pubovaginal sling than for the Burch colposuspension.
(a) Reported cure rates after an autologous PVS procedure are 50% to 97%.
(c) Bladder neck PVS slings should be utilized for refractory or recurrent SUI but are associated with worse outcomes.
Erosion from synthetic slings requires removal of all visible and palpable sling material.
The incidence of recurrent SUI in urethral erosions after use of a synthetic PVS is 74% to 100%.
There are only four cases of urethral erosion of an autologous PVS in the literature, and in most cases this may have been avoided by thorough cystoscopy.
Synthetic slings erode into the urethra 15 times more often than autologous, allograft, or xenograft slings.
Urethral erosions are often associated with urinary retention and mixed urinary incontinence.
Urodynamic study is valuable in assessment and planning management.
Fifty percent of affected patients have symptoms of overactive bladder, which can be avoided if sling lysis is performed within 2 weeks of PVS placement.
There is up to a 20% recurrent SUI rate after urethrolysis.
Obstruction, detrusor overactivity, or impaired detrusor contractility are all manifestations of voiding dysfunction for iatrogenic PVS obstruction.
Persistent urgency is more common than urinary retention in bladder outlet obstruction after a PVS procedure.
hypermobility is the main underlying cause of SUI.
the levator floor provides active compression to the proximal urethra.
intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) is rarely the primary cause of SUI.
the extrinsic urethral skeletal sphincter is the primary mechanism for urinary continence.
ISD is the primary underlying cause of SUI for women, with hypermobility being a secondary finding.
the pubourethral ligaments and pubococcygeal muscles provide a central support point that, during stress events, function to kink or functionally hinge the urethra, rendering continence.
the midurethral continence mechanism is active both passively and during stress events.
the midurethral mechanism is intrinsically involved with bladder neck support.
the pubourethral ligaments are a secondary component of the complex.
aging and childbirth have no effect on the midurethral support structures.
the synthetic material used is a wide porosity mesh.
loose tension is placed on the sling material.
insertion trocars are used to transpose the implanted material into position.
the sling is sutured to the underlying tissues for fixation purposes.
cystoscopy is a crucial component of the procedure.
Midurethral slings produce inferior results compared with laparoscopic colposuspensions.
Midurethral slings are less effective than open colposuspension procedures.
Mixed incontinence results are superior to those of pure SUI.
Five-year results demonstrate durability similar to 1-year results.
Postoperative voiding dysfunction is more common with midurethra procedures than with other types of suspension procedures.
have satisfaction rates lower than those in young patients.
are less effective than in younger patients.
result in postoperative urinary retention occurring more frequently.
have rates of postoperative urgency higher than those in young patients.
have mixed incontinence resolution rates higher than those in young patients.
concomitant hysterectomy has an adverse effect on incontinence outcome.
rates of urethrolysis for postoperative retention are higher.
occult incontinence is not adequately addressed.
rates of retention are slightly higher than in those undergoing a sling procedure only.
risks of erosion and infection are higher than in cases in which only a sling is performed.
failure rates are unaffected by urethral hypermobility.
bladder perforation is less than in primary cases.
overall efficacy is similar to that of primary implantation.
the technique needs to be altered when done as a primary procedure.
complication rates are higher than when midurethral slings are done primarily.
bladder perforation injury rates range up to 5%.
all of the above.
wound healing is delayed in approximately 1%.
de novo urgency occurs in up to 12% of patients.
voiding dysfunction ranges from 4% to 20%.
associated with bladder erosion rates of 20%.
do not affect outcomes or satisfaction.
decreased by the macroporous nature of the sling material.
associated with vaginal erosions approximately 20% of the time.
unaffected by tension placed on the slings.
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