urgency urinary incontinence.
idiopathic nonobstructive urinary retention.
A 36-year-old woman with a history of interstitial cystitis with minimal pain who voids between 20 and 25 times per day
A 55-year-old woman status post vaginal sling surgery and urgency urinary incontinence
A 67-year-old woman status post cerebrovascular accident and now with urinary urgency and frequency
A 65-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic man with bladder areflexia and nonobstructive urinary retention
A 41-year-old woman with urgency urinary incontinence
(c) Bladder bladder
(b) Bladder afferent loop
a and b
(d) Bladder urethral
(a) Pelvic pain
c and d
(b) Creation of bladder areflexia
(d) Pelvic and lower extremity sensory or motor abnormalities
(c) Abnormal sexual function
Dorsiflexion of the great toe and bellows reflex and pulling sensation in the rectum, scrotum, or vagina
Plantarflexion of the entire foot with sensation in the leg and buttock
Plantarflexion of the first three toes of the foot and sensation of pulling in the rectum or vagina
Bellows reflex (levator contraction) and sensation of pulling of the rectum
Levator reflex (bellows reflex) and sensations in the leg and buttock
Significant neuromuscular injury risk
Potential of dislodgement of the pacemaker
Heating of the electrical leads
Heating of the pacemaker itself
Potentially fatal arrhythmias
Detrusor sphincter dyssynergy
A poorly compliant bladder
Mild symptoms with no potential need for future MRI
Bedridden with significant functional incontinence
(d) The inferior aspect of the sacral iliac joints
(a) 9â•¯cm from the tip of the coccyx
(b) 11â•¯cm from the tip of the coccyx
a and d
(c) 13â•¯cm from the tip of the coccyx
excellent results with noninvasive therapies (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) and therefore no reason to perform more invasive sacral neuromodulation in the long term.
worsening of bowel function (Hinman bladder syndrome).
lack of data on growth of the spinal cord and nerve roots in the setting of neuromodulation devices.
lack of efficacy.
potential worsening of neuromuscular function due to bony abnormalities (spina bifida and myelomeningocele).
vaginal sling procedure.
radical cystectomy and ileal conduit.
It is a pure sensory afferent nerve branch of the pudendal nerve.
It has been proposed as a contributor to the pudendal pelvic nerve reflex.
Specific branches include the dorsal nerve of the penis in males and clitoral nerve in females.
It is an afferent nerve that carries sensory information.
Proximally, it carries sensory information from the hypogastric nerve.
irrigation of the pocket.
removal of the entire device.
a and c
Unipolar measurements are most useful for identifying open circuits during impedance testing.
If there is too little resistance, excessive current will flow.
If there is a broken circuit, electrons cannot flow and this will result in low impedance measurements.
If there is too much resistance, no current will flow (open).
Impedance is best described as the resistance of flow of electrons through a circuit.
It is used most often in patients with insufficient or nonreflex micturition after spinal cord injury.
Electrodes are applied extradurally to S2, S3, and S4 nerve roots.
It requires intact neuron pathways between the sacral cord and nuclei, pelvic nerve, and bladder to function.
It is usually coupled with sacral posterior rhizotomy.
It works best in a state of long-term areflexic bladder function.
bladder neck opening.
pelvic musculature contraction.
选择要在Apple App Store上查看的Topgrade应用程序。