a single functional unit.
related to effective voiding of urine.
predominantly dependent on the bladder.
predominantly dependent on the sphincter mechanisms.
directly reflected by associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
a quantitative indicator of lower urinary tract dysfunction.
useful in making a specific diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction.
more useful than signs.
purely subjective in nature.
most troublesome when they affect voiding.
a urodynamic diagnosis.
a collection of storage symptoms characterized by frequency.
part of the diagnosis of “mixed symptoms” when associated with urgency incontinence.
a nonspecific symptomatic diagnosis.
an accurate clinical diagnosis.
a history of leakage associated with raised intraabdominal pressure is diagnostic.
incontinence is not affected by associated prolapse.
urinary leakage is a symptom and a sign but not a diagnosis.
40% will have a significant cystocele.
bladder overactivity occurs in less than 15%.
is often low during slow bladder filling.
is associated with little or no pressure change as the bladder fills.
describes the relationship between change in bladder volume and change in detrusor pressure.
of high value denotes an abnormal volume-pressure relationship.
is rarely seen in neurologic patients.
concentric needle EMG studies.
abdominal leak point pressures.
surface electromyographic (EMG) studies.
urethral pressure profilometry.
detrusor leak point pressures.
develop voiding dysfunction.
experience fecal soiling.
have occult incontinence.
have stable detrusor function.
experience sexual dysfunction.
Storing a continuously increasing amount of urine at gradually increasing pressure
Positive influences of the higher centers acting on the pontine micturition center
A low degree of “tonus” within the bladder
Gradually increasing afferent traffic back to the brain
Voluntary control of micturition
Watertight apposition of the urethral lumen
A means of compensating for abdominal pressure changes (pressure transmission)
Structural support to keep the proximal urethra from moving during increases in pressure
A strong bladder neck mechanism
Compression of the wall around the lumen
detrusor leak point pressure.
Q tip test
the intact pudendal nerve.
type I muscle fibers alone.
the provision of a “backplate.”
a combination of all of the above.
equal transmission of increased intra-abdominal pressure to both bladder and urethra.
the hammock theory.
the “integral” hypothesis.
has been as well characterized as for women.
does not increase if there are preexisting symptoms.
is not related to age at the time of radical prostatectomy.
is predominantly stress in type.
occurs in up to 57% of men after radical prostatectomy.
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