a single functional unit.
predominantly dependent on the sphincter mechanisms.
predominantly dependent on the bladder.
related to effective voiding of urine.
directly reflected by associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
more useful than signs.
most troublesome when they affect voiding.
purely subjective in nature.
a quantitative indicator of lower urinary tract dysfunction.
useful in making a specific diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction.
a collection of storage symptoms characterized by frequency.
part of the diagnosis of “mixed symptoms” when associated with urgency incontinence.
a urodynamic diagnosis.
a nonspecific symptomatic diagnosis.
an accurate clinical diagnosis.
incontinence is not affected by associated prolapse.
bladder overactivity occurs in less than 15%.
a history of leakage associated with raised intraabdominal pressure is diagnostic.
urinary leakage is a symptom and a sign but not a diagnosis.
40% will have a significant cystocele.
is rarely seen in neurologic patients.
of high value denotes an abnormal volume-pressure relationship.
is associated with little or no pressure change as the bladder fills.
describes the relationship between change in bladder volume and change in detrusor pressure.
is often low during slow bladder filling.
detrusor leak point pressures.
abdominal leak point pressures.
concentric needle EMG studies.
surface electromyographic (EMG) studies.
urethral pressure profilometry.
have occult incontinence.
develop voiding dysfunction.
have stable detrusor function.
experience fecal soiling.
experience sexual dysfunction.
Gradually increasing afferent traffic back to the brain
A low degree of “tonus” within the bladder
Storing a continuously increasing amount of urine at gradually increasing pressure
Voluntary control of micturition
Positive influences of the higher centers acting on the pontine micturition center
A means of compensating for abdominal pressure changes (pressure transmission)
Structural support to keep the proximal urethra from moving during increases in pressure
Compression of the wall around the lumen
Watertight apposition of the urethral lumen
A strong bladder neck mechanism
detrusor leak point pressure.
Q tip test
type I muscle fibers alone.
the intact pudendal nerve.
the hammock theory.
equal transmission of increased intra-abdominal pressure to both bladder and urethra.
the “integral” hypothesis.
the provision of a “backplate.”
a combination of all of the above.
is not related to age at the time of radical prostatectomy.
does not increase if there are preexisting symptoms.
is predominantly stress in type.
has been as well characterized as for women.
occurs in up to 57% of men after radical prostatectomy.
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