Discuss integrity as a virtue
Integrity is internalising values and commitments. Acting and saying the same thing. Integrity is a valued psychologically by others. According to Confucius we are all influential on each other. Integrity changes others.
Article on Integrity written by who? ( in key reading)
What is ecological debt? How could it be measured.
Concept tabled by Chile at Rio Conference. Measure of unfair utilisation of national and common resources, now and in the past. Could be measured in money, footprint. Four commonly applied areas. 1. Carbon debt. 2. Biopiracy 3. Waste export 4. Environmental damage.
How could environmental debt be calculated in money terms. ?
Carbon clean up costs. EU cost of EU100 for tonne of CO2. Unfair trade. Poor price paid for knowledge of nature. Cost of waste management in rich countries compared to poor. Cost of replanting nature. Future predictions of loss of GDP. Environmental liabilities (accounting language)
Define philosophy, morality and ethics?
Philosophy is the study of human belief systems. Ethics is the study of what is right and wrong. Morality defines the norms and values of what is right in an individual or community. (Philosophy and ethics are actions of study)
What is meta-ethics?
It is the study of the meaning of ethical terms. Like 'goodness', 'harm', value.
What are applied and normative ethics?
normative is the study of what is right or wrong (what we ought to do). Applied is the study of how to achieve moral outcomes (usually looking at one area of life e.g. Business)
How is a moral presumption turned into a moral principle?
Presumption comes from a feeling of what ought to be done. A principle emerges after rational (critical) reasoning finds it to be correct.
What is 'rationalisation' in an argument? (Traer 2013)
It is when one party uses a rational argument to cover up their own (sometimes hidden) vested interest.
Three types of critical reasoning.
Analogy (similarity) deduction (principle) Inductive. (Evidence)
What is Kants categorical imperative?
Something you should do regardless of your personal desires. (Treat people as an end, not means to an end. Everyone is autonomous and rational and if intrinsic worth)
What is a 'Right'?
A Right is a justified claim against another persons behaviour. (When someone has a right, there is usually a duty on someone else to uphold this)
Was Adam Smith an 'egoist'?
Yes. By suggesting that it is morally right to act in your own self interest as this leads to overall improvement in society. (Invisible hand)
Jeremy Betham and John Stuart Mill are known for what?
The view that there is one correct ethical principle. That there is one correct answer.
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