The IMF was founded in
with the aim of promoting
stability and the reduction of poverty.
countries joined initially to form the fund that would provide loans to struggling countries. The major benefit of the IMF is that it has helped fund
such as schools and transport in impoverished countries. However it has been criticised for being biased; the USA has
of overall votes and therefore decisions may be based on Western ideals. Also, it imposes harsh
on aid, such as forcing countries to cut spending in areas such as military.
The WB was formed in 1944 with the aim of giving
and advice to struggling countries. It also addresses
crises. A major benefit of the WB is that it is a source of assistance for over
countries and it allows developing countries to have votes, such as
who have 4% of votes. However it received negative attention in the 1970s for funding projects such as development of the
and it is also based on
The WTO aims to remove barriers to
and improve the welfare of the people in its
member countries. The major benefit of the WTO is that it operates on a
basis which is more fair to developing countries. However, the rules on protection of developing nations are unclear. Africa has been forced to eliminate up to
of tariffs, and ultimately
usually get their way.
Terms coined by
power=getting what you want through force.
power=persuasive, diplomatic, attractive.
power=combination of the two.
A geo-strategic theory by
which states that the
has most of the world's resources, and at the centre of this is the
a power base that controls everything. Historical relevance: the
which wanted to control areas of land to secure
Additionally, Nazi Germany wanted to enforce
by controlling areas such as
The USA had a policy of
during the Cold War, to try and limit the spread of Communism.
Navy was ten times that of Germany's
Second largest in history
13 mill square miles
20% of world's people
Britain took direct control of India in
following a rebellion against British influence. Previously many countries had
here. GB introduced a policy of promoting
as well as culture such as tea-drinking and
Courts and schools were established, and the
was improved to increase trade and transport the military. However by the
were on the increase. After WW2, GB was effectively
and needed to focus on reconstruction. In
India was the first colony to gain independence from Britain. Most former colonies were independent by
After WW2, new powers had emerged; the main being
The Cold War followed as a result of conflicting ideologies. No direct conflict was involved, but a small number of
were fought by either side, such as the
from 1950-1953. Both countries expanded into Europe, with the USSR taking advantage of countries such as
to create a
zone. Such countries were heavily defended on the Western borders, leading to the formation of an
However following a growth in Natiolism and changes in policies by new leaders, the USSR collapsed in
leaving the USA as a
First Sub-Saharan nation to gain independence. In 1957 its GDP was equivalent to that of
whereas nowadays it is only
in the world, compared to 12th for S.Korea.
One of Ghana's largest industries is the
trade. The price of this is decided by
in MEDC cities. Buyers search for the cheapest supplies for global brands such as
Prices are unstable due to competition from areas such as the
and so the prices have changed
from 1996 to 2002. Meanwhile, most processing is done in the
where tarriffs are higher for processed cocoa than raw beans; the tariff in 2007 for chocolate was
This is known as
and is practised by many countries. In 1995, Ghana joined the
in order to increase trade. Previously, the gov had
farmers, but joining conditions forced them to cease this, even though other countries are allowed to do so. The crisis of prices is the same for
growers in Ghana.
Decline in consumerism in developed countries
China's manufacturing economy has huge potential
Increase in terrorism
Demographically large countries will get larger
India has an ageing population
EU and Japan have ageing populations
The incorrect answers are what the periphery receives.
Allies and debt repayment
Dependency theory offers a different approach as it incorporates
with economics. It takes into account the historical processes of
and does not suggest that
is the key to development. However, the rise of the
seems to argue against its claims, as they were once the periphery and are now developed. The theory suggests that the
keeps the periphery in a constant state of underdevelopment.
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