Enflurane is one of the most commonly used volatile liquid general anesthetic agents. Midazolam and nitrous oxide are anxiolytic agents that are used adjunctively with general anesthetic agents. Levodopa is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Nitrous oxide cylinders are standardized by color coding for safety. Nitrous oxide cylinders in the United States are color-coded blue, and oxygen cylinders are green.
Ketamine produces a state called dissociative anesthesia because it disrupts association pathways in the brain. The patient taking ketamine appears catatonic and has amnesia. Analgesia is produced without loss of consciousness.
Desflurane's low volatility requires a special vaporizer. Because of its ability to cause cough and laryngospasm, it cannot be used for induction.
Halothane has not been shown to have cause hypertension. Adverse effects include hypotension and cardiac depression. This agent sensitizes the heart to catecholamines such as epinephrine and norepinephrine, and can cause serious cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation. It is also linked to hepatoxicity.
The first statement is false; the second statement is true. The solubility of a general anesthetic is measured by the solubility in the blood. Drugs that are highly soluble in the blood have an increased induction and recovery time. The potency of an anesthetic agent is measure by the minimal alveolar concentration of an anesthetic at 1 atmospheric pressure.
Both statements are false.
The first statement is false; the second statement is true.
Both statements are true.
The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
Anxiety is one of the primary indications for use of nitrous oxide conscious sedation. Any condition that interferes with the patient's ability to breathe will interfere with the efficacy of nitrous oxide. Respiration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, such as emphysema, is driven by lack of oxygen, and the increased levels of oxygen given with nitrous oxide could interfere with their respiratory drive. Patients who are emotionally unstable may be taking psychotropic medications that could have an adverse effect.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
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