Nutritional status, weight, and activity level would be important for a nurse to know about a COPD patient. However, it would be most important for the nurse to know whether the patient smokes or uses tobacco in other ways or smoking cessation methods tha
Ingestion of fatty foods
Use of nicotine
First, using the formula: 2.2 pounds and 52 pounds: times kg, determine the child's weight in kg (52/2.2 = 23.64). Next, using the formula of amount of drug prescribed times weight in kg, determine the amount the child will receive in one dose (4 times 23
Therapeutic theophylline levels should be between 10 and 20 mcg/mL. A level between 0.5 and 5 mcg/mL would be low and would not produce a therapeutic effect. Levels between 25 and 50 mcg/mL would be too high and could cause serious adverse effects.
Between 40 to 50 mcg/mL
Between 10 to 20 mcg/mL
Between 0.5 to 5 mcg/mL
Between 25 to 35 mcg/mL
Epinephrine will cause the bronchi to dilate and also cause the rate and depth of respiration to increase. Inhaled steroids decrease the inflammatory response and lung surfactants reduce the surface tension within the alveoli. Mast cell stabilizers inhibi
Inhibit the release of histamine and slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRSA) to prevent the allergic asthmatic response
Reduce the surface tension within the alveoli allowing for gas exchange
Decrease the inflammatory response in the airways
Cause dilation of the bronchi with increased rate and depth of respiration
Teaching a patient about using an inhaled sympathomimetic for management of exercise-induced asthma should include instructions to use the inhaler 30 to 60 minutes before exercising to ensure therapeutic levels when needed. The inhaler would not be used d
Use the inhaler 2 to 3 hours before exercising to ensure peak effectiveness.
Use the inhaler every day at the same time each day.
Use the inhaler 30 to 60 minutes before exercising to ensure peak therapeutic levels when needed.
Use the inhaler as soon as the symptoms start.
Lung surfactants used therapeutically can cause many adverse effects including pneumothorax (collapsed lung), hypotension, pulmonary leak, hyperbilirubinemia, and sepsis. Other adverse effects may occur in the infant related to the degree of immaturity of
Nedocromil and cromolyn are mast cell stabilizers used in the treatment of asthma. Aminophylline and caffeine are xanthines. Ipratropium is an anti-cholinergic drug and budesonide is a corticosteroid. Isoetharine is a sympathomimetic drug and montelukast
Isoetharine or montelukast
Aminophylline or caffeine
Ipratropium or budesonide
Nedocromil or cromolyn
Anticholinergics can produce urinary hesitancy and urinary retention, conditions that would aggravate the signs and symptoms of prostatic hypertrophy. Older patients given anti-cholinergics should be encouraged to empty the bladder before taking the drug.
The nurse would instruct the patient to avoid aspirin, which might cause an increased montelukast level and toxicity. The other options do not cause drug–drug interactions with montelukast.
Combivent is a combination drug of ipratropium and albuterol. The propellant used to make ipratropium has a cross-sensitivity to the antigen that causes peanut allergies. Aspirin, penicillin, and ragweed pollen are not associated with this drug.
Nursing diagnoses related to drug therapy might include acute pain related to CNS, gastrointestinal (GI), or respiratory effects of the drug; imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements, related to dry mouth and GI upset; and deficient knowledge reg
Acute pain related to renal effects of the drug
Disturbed thought processes related to central nervous system (CNS) effects
Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements
Deficient knowledge regarding alternative therapy
Tiotropium is the first drug approved for once-daily maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients who cannot tolerate the sympathetic effects of the sympathomimetics might respond to the anti
It is an anticholinergic.
It has a rapid onset of action and a long duration.
You need to stay out of direct sunlight.
You only need to take it once a day.
It makes you fatigued.
Nicotine increases the metabolism of xanthines in the liver so that xanthine dosage must be increased in patients who continue to smoke while using xanthines. In addition, extreme caution must be used if the patient decides to decrease or discontinue smok
Taking anti-inflammatory drugs
Holding the breath prevents exhalation of medication still remaining in the mouth. The patient should inhale when the canister is compressed, not as soon as the inhaler enters his or her mouth. The patient should only administer one dose of medication at
The patient administers three doses of medication within a 1-minute time frame.
The patient inhales as soon as the inhaler enters his or her mouth.
The patient holds his or her breath for several seconds after releasing the medication.
The patient exhales as soon as he or she compresses the inhaler.
Drug treatment of asthma and COPD aims to relieve inflammation and promote bronchial dilation. The other options do not give the patient information about the use of these new medications.
“The medications that have been ordered for you are what the physician thinks will help you the most.”
“The medications that have been ordered for you are designed to work together to help you feel better.”
“The medications that have been ordered for you are to help you breathe easier.”
“The medications that have been ordered for you are to help relieve the inflammation and promote dilation of the bronchi.”
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