The male and female glands respond to luteinizing hormone (LH) and FSH, which are released from the anterior pituitary in response to stimulation from GnRH that is released from the hypothalamus. GHRH stimulates the release of the growth hormone, which ta
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH)
It would be important to explain that the woman's ova do not increase or decrease from birth to childbearing years. The nurse will stress that all the ova that a woman will have will be present at birth. The patient should understand that if she does not
The ovaries at birth contain all of the ova that a woman will have.
Ova aggregate, causing millions to be contained in a storage site called a follicle.
Ova quickly degenerate and most are absorbed in the body before the age of 12.
Follicles produce only estrogen; the uterus produces progesterone.
In a pregnant woman, both estrogen and progesterone hormones have specific functions. High levels of both hormones are needed for the maintenance of pregnancy.
High levels of estrogen only
High levels of estrogen, low levels of progesterone
Low levels of estrogen, high levels of progesterone
High levels of estrogen and progesterone
Progesterone has an anti-insulin effect to generate a higher blood glucose concentration to allow for rapid diffusion of glucose to the developing embryo. Body temperature and appetite are increased by progesterone. Uterine motility is decreased to provid
Decreased body temperature
Increased uterine motility
When the circulating estrogen level rises high enough, it stimulates a massive release of LH from the anterior pituitary causing one of the developing follicles to burst and release the ovum with its stored hormones into the system. ACTH targets the adren
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Prostaglandins in the uterus stimulate uterine contractions to clamp off vessels in the lining of the uterus, which is the cause of the cramping. The decrease of estrogen and progesterone after the involution of the corpus luteum triggers the release of f
An increase in progesterone and a decrease of estrogen cause the lining of the uterus to slough away
An increase in the levels of estrogen and progesterone, which cause uterine contractions
Low levels of plasminogen in the uterus that cause the shedding of the lining of the uterus
Prostaglandins in the uterus, which stimulate uterine contractions to clamp off vessels as the lining of her uterus sheds
After the ovum is fertilized and implants itself in the uterine wall, human chorionic gonadotropin is produced by the junction of the fertilized embryo with the uterine wall. ACTH and GH are not involved with his process. The release of prolactin helps wi
Growth hormone (GH)
Human chorionic gonadotropin
Testosterone enters the cell and reacts with a cytoplasmic receptor site to influence messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) activity resulting in the production of proteins for cell structure or function. Testosterone is responsible for both baldness and hair
Delay of epiphyseal closure
Thinning of the skin
Decreased hematocrit levels
Stimulation in humans occurs with mild increases of sensitivity and the climax occurs from massive sympathetic stimulation. Many animals require an estrous cycle to become stimulated, but that is not true of humans. The period of recovery occurs when the
Humans require endocrine stimuli during a time period called estrus for a sexual response to occur.
Sexual climax occurs from massive sympathetic stimulation.
The period of recovery is initiated with parasympathetic stimulation.
Stimulation occurs with massive increases in sensitivity.
Increased testosterone levels in boys at puberty results in thickening of the skin, a deeper voice, development of facial hair, and closure of the epiphyses. These previously established effects would be maintained by the androgens, which still remain in
To maintain his deep voice
To begin to grow taller
To lose his facial hair
To develop a wide and flat pelvis
Each ovum is contained in a storage site called a follicle. The follicles act as endocrine glands producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone. The primary goal of these hormones is to prepare the body for pregnancy and to maintain the pregnancy until
To develop the body's reproductive system
To deepen the voice and promote facial hair growth
To initiate the body's change into puberty
To prepare the body for pregnancy
The sperm travels through the fallopian tube to the ova, released into the abdomen near the end of one of the fallopian tubes. With both fallopian tubes blocked, no passageway exists for sperm to reach the ova. Damage to the fallopian tubes does not impac
“You cannot become pregnant because damage to your fallopian tubes causes ova to stop being released from the ovary.”
“You can get pregnant but the embryo, once fertilized, cannot travel to the uterus to implant and grow.”
“You cannot become pregnant because sperm cannot travel through the fallopian tubes to fertilize the ova released by the ovary.”
“The blockage of your fallopian tubes prevents the high levels of estrogen and progesterone needed to sustain the pregnancy.”
The follicles contained in the ovary become depleted over time, the ovaries no longer produce estrogen and progesterone, and menopause begins with the cessation of menses. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland produce increased levels of GnRH, FSH, and LH
Serum lipid levels increase
Hypothalamus increases production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Decreased serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
Loss of calcium retention in bones
Reversal of primary sex characteristics
Estrogens are responsible for developing and maintaining the female reproductive organs. Progesterone is the most important hormone for conditioning the endometrium in preparation for implantation of the fertilized ovum. Androgens, secreted by the ovaries
FSH directly stimulates the seminiferous tubules to produce sperm, a process called spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis does not occur in response to LH or GnRH (options A and B). Option D, GfRH is a distracter for this question.
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