Papule - A papule is a small, circumscribed lesion, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, that is elevated above the surface of normal surrounding tissue.
Vesicle - A vesicle is a small, elevated lesion less than 1 cm in diameter that contains serous fluid.
Nodule - A nodule is a palpable solid lesion up to 1 cm in diameter.
Macule - A macule is a flat area that is distinguished by a color difference from the surrounding tissue.
Some necrosis can be a histologic sign of the lesion.
Large nuclei can be histologic signs of the lesion.
Dyskeratosis can be a histologic sign of the lesion.
Osteoclasts would not be visible because they are involved in bone formation; in clinical leukoplakia, soft tissue is involved.
Acanthosis, thickening of epithelium, can be a histologic sign of the lesion.
Presence of Candida albicans The presence of Candida albicans is not related to hairy leukoplakia.
Identification of Epstein-Barr virus in lesion The most reliable way to diagnose hairy leukoplakia is to identify Epstein-Barr virus in the lesion.
Positive test results for HIV Although hairy leukoplakia is common in individuals infected with HIV, it is not exclusive to HIV-infected patients.
Mononucleosis, an infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, is known as the kissing disease because it can be transmitted during kissing.
Both the statement and the reason are correct and related.
Neither the statement nor the reason is correct. Erythroplakia is considered a more serious clinical finding than leukoplakia and when examined microscopically, 90% of cases of erythroplakia demonstrate epithelial dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma.
Perform a scalpel biopsy Microscopic findings from a scalpel biopsy provide the most definitive histologic features for a white lesion with an unknown cause.
Perform a cytologic smear
Therapeutic A therapeutic diagnosis would be secondary to first determining and then eliminating the cause. Vitamin A therapy may assist in the reduction of hyperkeratosis.
Clinical and historical Nicotine stomatitis is an easily detectable pathologic condition; clinical signs include hyperkeratosis of the palate and marked inflammation of the minor salivary duct orifice. The history of heavy smoking and clinical signs contribute significantly to the diagnosis. The patient usually smokes a pipe, but heavy cigarette or cigar smoking can cause a similar response.
Brush biopsy Brush biopsy removes only transepithelial cells for examination. This procedure is not adequate for a definitive diagnosis of soft-tissue oral cancer.
Scalpel biopsy A scalpel biopsy involves removal and microscopic examination of suspicious tissues to establish a complete, definitive diagnosis.
Complete patient history
Location of the lesion
Laboratory results Laboratory results are not specific for any form of aphthous ulcer identification.
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