Utilitarian approach does not take into account the fair distribution of the benefits and burdens of a development project. Therefore considered unjust.
Justice - what is a fair distribution of costs and benefits? Fundamentally concerned with each and every person what they deserve. Central to this theory is the idea of equity
Protect individuals from bearing a disproportionate amount of costs of development
Equity - what do we mean by equity and how do we measure it? Gasper 'more equity need not imply more equality' Earned more or need more
Equity regarding what? Distributive equity - about interpersonal or inter group allocation of costs and benefits. Central concern for distributive justice. Procedural equity - concerns fairness in procedures used (eg in law)
William Blanchard Types of equity - 8 Gasper example of the original criteria used in Zim for rural settlement - 1980
Equality, Need - these are not equal eg age young, Effort expended, money invested, results - who will use them best, Ascription-right to benefit, fair procedure - accepted as being fair, demand and preference
What is considered fair - strongly linked to past, present and future. Many different interpretations of how to measure this fairness.
Zim rural settlement criteria
1. Age not more than 50/55 2. Citizen Zim 3. Family status head with dependents 4. Health good 5. Income low 6. Landholding little or none 7. Agreement no to formal sector employment and no to land outside resettlement area 8. First come first serve
Rawls and social contracts - concerned what a just society would look like and how it would order itself
1. Every rational person in society enters into a contract with all other members of society. A hypothetical social contract.
He asks us to imagine that we do not know our place in society. This he calls the original position. An imaginary state of ignorance. Then he argues we should organise society around 2 basic principles
The principle of Liberty - each person to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others AND The difference principle - social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are of the greatest benefit to the least advantaged Wraight
Rawls argues that anyone in the original position would rationally opt for a social order where the least advantaged members of society would be helped to have their basic needs met by those more fortunate than themselves
Rawls' theory is not for a global situation but within a society. Where that state has the power and ability to influence citizens through taxes and laws to address inequality. No such power globally. It is also necessarily anthropocentric.
Environmental Justice - a key issue in terms of SD policy
We focus on 1. Human - human relationships 2. Environmental racism. 3. Unequal global distribution of benefits and harms
Warren County North Carolina - birth place of a national movement for environmental justice
Poor, rural and overwhelmingly black. 6000 truckloads of soil laced with toxic waste. 1982 First arrests (500) in US history over the siting of a landfill.
DesJardins Toxic waste dumps, landfills, incinerators, polluting industries tend to be located in or near poor communities. Often have high concentrations of racial minorities. Also at international level. Less polluting controls in some countries
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