GEOMETRIC PERIOD - 1,000 - 700 BC
New style produced on a large scale. Little absolute chronology.
Early -> middle period = more space used up in middle rather than large gaps between patterns. Middle -> late period = inclusion of human figures.
DIPYLON KRATER c. 750 - funerary procession and laying out of the dead. vessels can be used as tomb markers and therefore often have funerary themes. arms raised and hands on heads = gesture of mourning. pot shape of krater was used for mixing wine and water, spices etc. indicates congregating, celebrating, drinking parties. strange proportions - standardised. no differentiation between male and female.
KYLIX BY THE SOSIAS PAINTER, 500 BC. achilles caring for Patroclus. Image on inside, can only be seen when wine from inside is drunk. designed for kylix specifically. AMPHORA BY MYSON, 500 BC. king croesus burning on pyre. other side is Theseus abducting Queen of Amazons, wearing Persian attire. Theseus symbolises Athenian democ so scene symbols Athenians carrying Persians. Enemy is female.
ARCHAIC PERIOD SCULPTURE - 700 BC - 490 BC
KRITIAN BOY c.490BC - change in movement of body - contrapposto stance shows interests in depicting movement.
KROISOS KOUROUS c. 6th century BC - marble, life-sized male. leg muscles more defined than torso. Clenched fists - static. arms straight down sides - stiff posture, no developed techniques for movement = archaic. braided, long hair = quite geometric with braids. no beard, clean-shaven = not yet the ideal of looking like a greek philosopher.
ARCHAIC VASES - 700 - 490 BC
From Black to Red-figure paintings. Red = more detail of humans e.g. shading. Style change can be compared to Siphnian Treasury.
ARCHAIC PERIOD - GREEK TOPOGRAPHY
Sanctuary - gods. Agora - humans, e.g. marketplace, council buildings. Cemetery - dead; outside city boundary for prevention of disease from pollutants of the dead. Athens was a Mycenaean settlement. 8th century = palace declines and shrines grew: political centre to a religious centre. Agora new political centre. Temples to Athena, e.g. Parthenon, Athena Nike. New Agora pushed further from acropolis.
SANCTUARIES - ARCHAIC ARTEMIS OF EPHESOS - 550 BC
Colossal size, 121 columns. Ionic columns and styled temple. relief in band at bottom of pillars - not typically greek, artemis statue not typical either - likely has different origins, e.g. wearin globes, unknown what they represent.
SANCTUARIES - SIPHNIAN TREASURY, DELPHI
Late Archaic Period: 560-480. Made of marble from Siphnos. EAST PEDIMENT: herakles, apollo and tripod. artemis supporting apollo. zeus in middle. EAST FRIEZE: assembly of gods and battle of Troy. NORTH FRIEZE: gigantomachy, dionysus lion drawn chariot. giants depicted as hoplites, interesting because they are bad. dead giants =mortal/immortals. WEST FRIEZE: Judgement of Paris. Less detail preserved. Hermes, Athena. Power of goddesses.
ROLE OF SIPHNIAN TREASURY
house lavish offerings given to priests for gods and goddesses. "The Siphnians furnished a treasury in Delphi which was on par with the grandest there." (Herodotus). "treasury" = storehouse of treasures. i.e. dedications to gods.
SIGNIFICANCE OF SIPHNIAN TREASURY - 525 BC
Elaborate decor: Sculpture in pediments and akroteria; sculpted frieze; statues of women instead in place of columns. East and west friezes have a display of judgement: ENCOURAGING VIEW TO MAKE A JUDGEMENT. The only faces that face the viewer are those of the dead - this is a place for displaying treasure not for a cult, therefore viewer cannot come face-to-face with gods. ENCOURAGES REFLECTION ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GODS AND MEN: Paris deciding Aph is the most beaut, the other goddesses encouraging him to run off with Helen; Achilles overcomes Memnon because gods decide his fate. ARCHAIC: stiff posture, beaded hair, almond eyes, small smile. POWER OF GODS OVER MORTALS, HUBRIS -> MESSAGE FOR MORTALS.
EARLY ARCHAIC SCULPTURE
MANTIKLOS APOLLO, EARLY 7TH CENTURY, THEBES. More movement in bronze. 28cm tall. small hips, broad shoulders, triangle shape. inscription on thigh gives illusion of movement as you turn to read it - innovative. large eyes hollowed out. idealised image of how homer describes heroes, broad shoulders, strong thighs, wide chest etc. ORIENTALISING PERIOD (EARLY ARCHAIC) - 700-600 BC: LADY OF AUXERRE. (640) 65cm tall, no movement: feet are flat and parallel. foldless dress, hair as cubes, pose similar to fertility pose in middle east
PHRASIKLEA KORE: 540 - holding part of dress = graceful; archaic smile, almond shaped eyes, unopened lotus buds=infertile, tunic rather than peplos - very simple; technical progress limestone to marble;
PEPLOS KORE C. 530
Very similar to Egyptian 7th century statues: same stance, same proportions of body. HOWEVER, egyptian models never naked, no elaborate hairstyle on egyptians, egyptian not freestanding and have stone in between leg. Can be used as GRAVE MARKERS, OR DEDICATIONS TO GODS IN TEMPLES. KROISOS KOUROUS 7TH CENTURY.
Late 7th century, introduction of life size or colossal sized statues. 590BC: Geometric, angular faces, no texture on skin, hair falls straight. 560 BC: Muscles softer, more curved lines = truer to life, hair slight curve but still little movement. 530 BC: knees softened to rounder shape, muscles more realistic, hair curves to neck. MATERIAL: limestone to marble. marble harder to handle but lasts longer and can be polished. End of archaic period = life-size bronzes. Bronze = lighter, less need for support.
CLASSICAL PERIOD SCULPTURE
More realistic. Body proportions become more realistic. RIACE WARRIORS - 450 BC: found in sea. WARRIOR A: 6 foot 9, younger age. Contrapposto stance. Likely held shield or spear. Elaborately ringletted hair and beard. WARRIOR B: 6 foot 6, contrapposto stance but less dramatic - feet closer. Inlaid eyes. WHO? possibly 2 warriors from Seven of Thebes, or a Battle of VIctory monument at Delphi or Olympia. No evidence. Athletes? Soldiers? Heroes? Contemporary? Part of same group? Copy or original? DORYPHOROS: original by Polykleitos lost from 440 BC. Made a kanon Doryphoros has most ideal body proportions. No emotion. Military figure: soldiers were generally trained as athletes first. 6 foot 11.
EARLY CLASSICAL TEMPLE
TEMPLE OF ZEUS, OLYMPIA - 470. Zeus in throne made of gold and ivory - largest statue. EAST PEDIMENT: looks over Olympia race track. Scene appears calm with little action because knowledge of viewer is assumed. Oinomaus, king of Olympia will give hand of his daughter to whoever beats him in chariot race (he has magical horses.) Pelops defeats Oinomaus because he bribed charioteer to make chariot break. pediment shows scene of them giving oath of fair play. zeus in centre. seer in corner looking in horror - foreshadowing. intellectual appeal. WEST PEDIMENT chaos, fighting. Lapiths (Greek humans) vs Centaurs. centaurs being savage at a lapith wedding and getting wildly drunk, start to molest women. apollo in middle, calm with an arm out to stop. centaur = savage; lapith = calm = prevail over enemy.
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