(d) provide understanding of patient's voiding pattern.
b and d
(b) provide information about symptom improvement.
(a) determine functional bladder capacity.
(c) determine adherence to pelvic floor muscle training.
Pelvic floor muscle training is appropriate for stress or mixed incontinence, but not for urge incontinence.
Pelvic floor muscle training works for women, but not for men.
Pelvic floor muscle training is only useful for mild-moderate incontinence, but not severe incontinence.
Pelvic floor muscle training is effective for treating stress, urge, or mixed incontinence in men and women of any age.
Pelvic floor muscle training is not effective for older people.
wait as long as possible to go to the bathroom to increase bladder capacity.
stay away from the bathroom until they feel the urge to void. Then stay still and wait until the urge has passed before going to the bathroom.
stay near a bathroom as much as possible, so they won't have far to go when they feel an urge to void.
stay away from the bathroom until they feel an urge to void. Then get to the bathroom as soon as possible.
Squeezing the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) while rushing to the bathroom
Squeezing the PFMs while sitting still until the urgency goes away, then walking to the bathroom
Relaxing the pelvic floor muscles to help relax the bladder
Crossing the legs
increase fluid intake to ensure adequate hydration and train the bladder.
increase fluid intake to prevent the loss of functional bladder capacity
consume a normal amount of fluid to avoid dehydration as well as sudden urgency.
decrease fluid intake to minimize bladder filling.
all of the above.
keep a diary to see which foods or beverages increase urgency.
avoid spicy foods, tomatoes, and citrus fruits.
teach patients to contract PFMs whenever they engage in activities that precipitate leakage.
prescribe a specific set of exercises for the patients to do each day.
all of the above.
ensure that patients are contracting the PFMs selectively.
Patients should be encouraged to reduce caffeine gradually.
Patients should be encouraged to try eliminating caffeine for a few days to see how it affects their bladder.
Patients should be told to eliminate caffeine gradually.
Patients should be advised to eliminate coffee only, as it the main source of caffeine.
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