None of the above are true.
Pelvic parasympathetic nerves arise at the sacral spinal cord level and excite the bladder and urethra.
Pudendal (somatic) nerves excite the bladder body and the external urethral sphincter.
All of the above are true.
Sympathetic nerves inhibit the bladder body and excite the bladder neck and urethra
Nathan first described sensations of awareness during bladder filling.
Bladder filling has been shown to correlate with episodic bursts of sensation and afferent discharge.
All are correct.
Sensations of awareness during bladder distension can be mapped to the urinary bladder.
It has been speculated the sense of imminent micturition arises in the urethra.
characterized by responses to receptive field stimulation.
variable in both morphology and function depending upon species.
silent initially but sensitized during inflammatory processes.
All of the above.
classified according to ability to respond to a diverse range of chemical mediators.
(a) open ion channels in the nerve terminals.
(b) release a number of inflammatory mediators.
(c) develop rapidly and be relatively short lived.
(d) be resolved easily.
The mediators, which are responsible for these conditions, have been well described.
This is an example of cross-organ sensitization.
Cross-organ sensitization only occurs between the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary bladder.
None are true.
In animal models colonic inflammation rarely leads to bladder dysfunction.
acetylcholine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) appear to provide the majority of the excitatory input.
additional substances released from efferent nerves include nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.
all are correct.
the majority express acetylcholinesterase enzyme.
release of both acetylcholine and ATP result in smooth muscle contraction.
reflex bladder activity can be modulated by alpha-1 adrenergic mechanisms.
the beta-3 adrenergic receptors are present at a number of sites (both peripherally and centrally).
alpha-1 adrenergic mechanisms control blood pressure and tissue blood flow.
beta-3 receptor agonists, via effects on a number of sites, are a promising treatment for overactive bladder.
All are correct
(a) It is the main excitatory neurotransmitter for bladder contraction in humans.
(b) It can activate two main families of purinergic receptors: P2X and P2Y
(c) Purinergic neurotransmission plays an important role in bladder overactivity and bladder pain
b and c are true
the sympathetic reflex provides negative feedback.
bladder accommodation is dependent upon activation of sympathetic pathways.
intravesical pressure measurements are low when below the voiding threshold.
bladder accommodation is dependent upon quiescence of parasympathetic efferent pathways.
all are true.
(b) the urothelium is only a barrier and exhibits no other functions.
(c) increase of urothelial-mediators during bladder filling can influence smooth muscle tone.
(d) the urothelial surface cells change shape during bladder filling.
a, c, and d are correct.
(a) the urothelium plays an important role in accommodating urine storage.
all of the above.
increased outlet resistance.
activation of external urethral sphincter motoneurons.
activation of pudendal motoneurons.
activation of afferent input from the urethra or pelvic floor that leads to closure of the urethral outlet.
(d) a better treatment compared with posterior tibial nerve stimulation.
(a) an effective treatment for refractory overactive bladder
(c) effective by modulation of central nervous system pathways
a-c are correct.
(b) an effective treatment for non-obstructive urinary retention
reflex voiding only occurs in the normal adult.
relaxation of the urethral smooth muscle during micturition is achieved by release of acetylcholine.
none are true.
switching between bladder storage and emptying can occur involuntarily (reflex emptying) or voluntarily.
initial expulsion of urine consists of initial contraction of the urethral sphincter.
a and d are correct
(c) de Groat
(d) increased urethral afferent activation promoting bladder emptying.
the M region.
the dorsal pontine tegmentum.
the pontine micturition center.
選擇要在Apple App Store上查看的Topgrade應用程序。