frequently spontaneously recovers (30% to 50% of the time).
may degenerate into cancer.
is associated with Dupuytren contracture in 40% of men.
is a wound healing disorder.
is an autoimmune disease.
the substance of the corpora cavernosa.
the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpora cavernosa.
the substance of the corpus spongiosum.
the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpus spongiosum.
10% chance of getting worse.
80% chance of staying the same.
10% or less chance of spontaneous improvement of deformity.
40% chance of spontaneous improvement of deformity.
70% chance of getting worse.
11% to 16%
1% to 3%
can be found in 50% to 60% of men with PD.
is a predictive factor for the need for surgical treatment.
is associated with successful intralesional injection therapy.
is not an indication of stable, mature disease.
can be reliably identified on physical examination.
is typically resolved by successful surgery.
has no association with relationship issues with the patient's partner.
correlates with degree of erect curvature.
is frequently associated with penile shortening.
should include measurement of plaque size with calipers.
should include direct assessment of curvature following injection of vasoactive agent.
should include assessment of the patient's palms.
should include measurement of stretched penile length.
can be supported with a picture of the erect penis by a smartphone.
erectile response to vasoactive penile injection.
penile vascular flow parameters.
penile deformity when erect.
penile sensory integrity.
Anti-transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)
Improved penile blood flow
Elevated local levels of nitric oxide (NO)
high success rate.
vacuum constriction device.
oral vitamin E or potassium para-aminobenzoate (Potaba).
penile prosthesis with penile straightening.
intralesional verapamil injections.
diminished risk of postoperative ED.
better sensory protection.
greater potential for loss of erect length.
less shortening compared with grafting.
to encourage straight healing.
to prevent shortening and possibly recover some lost length.
to encourage partner participation.
to enhance cicatrix contracture.
to preserve vascular integrity.
increases or preserves postoperative length.
encourages tissue remodeling.
increases the risk of sensory change.
results appear dose-related.
should be used for 3 or more hours/day for optimum results.
選擇要在Apple App Store上查看的Topgrade應用程序。