may degenerate into cancer.
is associated with Dupuytren contracture in 40% of men.
is an autoimmune disease.
frequently spontaneously recovers (30% to 50% of the time).
is a wound healing disorder.
the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpora cavernosa.
the substance of the corpora cavernosa.
the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpus spongiosum.
the substance of the corpus spongiosum.
80% chance of staying the same.
40% chance of spontaneous improvement of deformity.
10% chance of getting worse.
70% chance of getting worse.
10% or less chance of spontaneous improvement of deformity.
1% to 3%
11% to 16%
is associated with successful intralesional injection therapy.
is a predictive factor for the need for surgical treatment.
can be reliably identified on physical examination.
can be found in 50% to 60% of men with PD.
is not an indication of stable, mature disease.
is typically resolved by successful surgery.
has no association with relationship issues with the patient's partner.
is frequently associated with penile shortening.
correlates with degree of erect curvature.
should include measurement of plaque size with calipers.
should include assessment of the patient's palms.
can be supported with a picture of the erect penis by a smartphone.
should include measurement of stretched penile length.
should include direct assessment of curvature following injection of vasoactive agent.
penile vascular flow parameters.
erectile response to vasoactive penile injection.
penile sensory integrity.
penile deformity when erect.
Elevated local levels of nitric oxide (NO)
Improved penile blood flow
Anti-transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)
high success rate.
penile prosthesis with penile straightening.
intralesional verapamil injections.
oral vitamin E or potassium para-aminobenzoate (Potaba).
vacuum constriction device.
greater potential for loss of erect length.
diminished risk of postoperative ED.
better sensory protection.
less shortening compared with grafting.
to encourage straight healing.
to encourage partner participation.
to prevent shortening and possibly recover some lost length.
to preserve vascular integrity.
to enhance cicatrix contracture.
increases or preserves postoperative length.
should be used for 3 or more hours/day for optimum results.
encourages tissue remodeling.
results appear dose-related.
increases the risk of sensory change.
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