chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
traumatic brain injury.
all of the above.
coronary heart disease.
confirmatory repeat testosterone (T) testing if initial T level is in the mildly hypogonadal range.
complete history and physical exam.
measurement of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing.
Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are fundamental elements for the diagnosis of the condition.
Recurrence of symptoms is highly reproducible for each individual with interruption of therapy.
Screening questionnaires are highly specific.
Serum T threshold for symptoms ranges narrowly among individuals.
Signs and symptoms of hypogonadism are specific; biochemical support is desirable but not mandatory.
Inability to concentrate
None of the above
Congestive heart failure
topical T gels.
T buccal formulation.
oral T undecanoate.
subcutaneous T implants.
intramuscular injectable preparations.
monitoring T level 3 to 6 months after initiation of T therapy.
measuring bone mineral density of lumbar spine and/or femoral neck in men with osteoporosis and history of low-trauma fracture.
checking baseline hematocrit and then annually.
evaluating patients 3 to 6 months after initiation of T therapy, and then annually to assess symptomatic response and adverse effects.
yearly PSA testing.
benign prostatic hypertrophy.
decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
elevated serum triglycerides.
increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
(b) Definitive guidelines exist regarding the evaluation and treatment of MetS in the context of urologic diseases.
a and c
(a) It is associated with an increased risk of urinary stones.
(c) It is associated with an increased risk of erectile dysfunction.
It is associated with a decreased risk of prostate enlargement.
Weight loss will improve fertility in obese men.
Weight loss will not improve erectile function in obese men.
For the MetS, obesity is measured using body mass index (BMI).
Level 1 evidence indicates that weight loss may improve stress urinary incontinence in obese women.
Spermatic DNA damage
All of the above
ED is as strong a risk factor for cardiovascular disease as smoking and family history.
Men with hypertension are more likely to develop ED than men without hypertension.
ED increases the risk of incident cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction.
ED is associated with increased risks of insulin resistance and diabetes.
For obese men with ED, evidence-based guidelines recommend lifestyle modifications, including weight loss, before initiating pharmacotherapy.
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