Case study - air tansport
Small but rapidly increasing contribution to climate change. This case study shows how it may be difficult to mitigate CC and protect industries that make a substantial contribution to ec dev
Background - ait craft emissions are expected to be responsible for a substantial proportion of GHG emissions by 2050
Industry is international in its scope, technologically mature, characterised by long lead-in times and long in- service times.
Add in operations at airports and ancillary services
Direct and indirect effects
Direct CO2 as a result of fossil fuel combustion. Indirect where emissions initiate other physical or chemical processes causing radiative forcing
Reducing impact typically categorised in terms of technological, operational, policy optios
Technological improvements through improved air frame, engine designs and alternative fuels. Operational through way they are flown eg height. Policy options must negotiate complex issues of equity between nations and sectors. Between environmental protection and economic and social development. Access to international markets.
Limited potential for radical technological or operational solutions
Look at policy approaches
To date have focused on inclusion of aviation industry in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Plus voluntary commitments to sue carbon offsetting schemes or to achieve carbon neutrality
Given their varying strengths and political acceptability no single policy instrument appears ideal
No one good enough
An adequate framework will probably require a combination of regulatory, market-based and voluntary approaches.
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