Globally, tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients.
Tuberculosis incidence is decreasing worldwide.
Tuberculosis incidence among Asian immigrants is comparable to that for persons born in the United States.
Tuberculosis occurs predominantly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) late in the course of their disease (CD4+ T-cell count of <200 cells/mm3).
Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has increased in the United States since the 1990s.
Infectivity of the mycobacterial strain
Immune status of the source case
Size of the bacillary inoculum inhaled
Immune status of the exposed individual
Duration of exposure to the source case
Epididymitis is a rare presenting symptom of genitourinary tuberculosis.
Transmission of genitourinary tuberculosis from male to female is common.
Renal tuberculosis is most common in children younger than 5 years of age.
Renal tuberculosis is usually the result of activation of prior blood-borne metastatic renal infection.
Humans are not the only reservoir for M. tuberculosis.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
Intravenous drug abusers
magnetic resonance imaging.
Concomitant pulmonary and genitourinary
preventable with vitamin B6.
manifested as hyperbilirubinemia.
evident almost immediately after initiation of therapy.
often normalizes after several months of continued therapy.
Patients should have at least 4 to 6 weeks of extensive chemotherapy before surgery.
Lack of renal calcification is not a contraindication to partial nephrectomy.
Open surgical drainage of an abscess is usually required.
Strictures at the ureteropelvic junction are common and frequently require endopyelotomy.
There is no indication for an epididymectomy in the modern era of chemotherapy.
Quinolones should be avoided during BCG treatment.
BCG sepsis treatment begins with isoniazid.
Serious side effects are uncommon.
BCG should be administered immediately after a transurethral resection.
BCG is commonly used to reduce recurrence rates of superficial urothelial carcinoma.
Sexual reproductive phase occurs in snails.
It is common in South America.
Human infection is acquired by exposure to fresh water that harbors infected snails.
Worm pairs are principally located in the hepatic vasculature in humans.
Worm pairs have life spans estimated between 3 and 6 months.
An active infection can be diagnosed by the presence of laterally spined eggs in the urine.
A history of living or traveling in Africa means that the patient has been to endemic areas.
An active infection has the full complement of egg stages present.
Calculating the number of eggs per 10 mL of urine is not an indication of the intensity of the infection.
The intensity of infection is inversely related to the egg burden found in tissues or body fluids.
HIV-positive patients with lower CD4+ T-cell counts have higher egg burdens than patients with normal CD4+ T-cell counts.
Granulomatous host response to the schistosome eggs does not cause the pathologic tissue changes.
Eosinophil-mediated killing is effective against adult worms.
A “sandy patch” is a granulomatous ulcer.
T-cell–dependent host responses modulate granuloma formation.
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