increase in bladder capacity and no change in voided volume.
increase in urine production and increase in voiding frequency.
decrease in voided volume and increase in voiding frequency.
decrease in urine production and increase in bladder capacity.
increase in bladder capacity and decrease in voiding frequency.
Higher Pdetmax is observed in female infants only.
Lower Pdetmax is observed in infants compared with adults.
Higher Pdetmax is observed in male infants only.
Higher Pdetmax is observed in both male and female infants.
There is no difference compared with adults.
Development of direct volitional control over the bladder-sphincter complex occurs.
Micturition is initiated with a full bladder by a simple spinal cord reflex.
Micturition does not occur during sleep.
Innervation of the bladder involves both the central somatic and the autonomic nervous system.
Neurologic control occurs at different levels of the central nervous system from spinal cord to brainstem.
small bladder capacity.
the Vincent curtsy sign.
all of the above.
the hold maneuver.
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
Hyperreflexic bladder with reduced bladder capacity
Small bladder capacity with incontinence
Small bladder capacity with frequent voiding
None of the above
Large bladder capacity with poor bladder emptying
All of the above
Urinary tract infection (UTI)
Radiologic studies of the upper urinary tract are not necessary.
There is a high rate of spontaneous resolution of the VUR.
A urodynamic study is warranted for appropriate management of any underlying bladder dysfunction.
The risk of breakthrough UTI is minimal on prophylactic antibiotic therapy.
Surgical intervention is a consideration when the child is older.
Radiograph of lumbar spine
Ambulatory urodynamic study
Conventional fill studies are performed during ambulatory urodynamics.
Natural fill urodynamics can only be performed via a suprapubic catheter.
During video-urodynamics the child is allowed to run freely within a private cubicle.
Detrusor response may be inhibited during conventional fill urodynamic studies.
Urodynamic studies are used to describe the physiologic parameters involved in the bladder mechanics during voiding only.
pelvic floor rehabilitation.
Low leak-point pressure
Marked reduction in bladder emptying efficiency
Poor bladder compliance
Reduced functional bladder capacity
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