increase in bladder capacity and no change in voided volume.
decrease in urine production and increase in bladder capacity.
increase in bladder capacity and decrease in voiding frequency.
decrease in voided volume and increase in voiding frequency.
increase in urine production and increase in voiding frequency.
Higher Pdetmax is observed in both male and female infants.
There is no difference compared with adults.
Higher Pdetmax is observed in male infants only.
Lower Pdetmax is observed in infants compared with adults.
Higher Pdetmax is observed in female infants only.
Neurologic control occurs at different levels of the central nervous system from spinal cord to brainstem.
Micturition does not occur during sleep.
Development of direct volitional control over the bladder-sphincter complex occurs.
Micturition is initiated with a full bladder by a simple spinal cord reflex.
Innervation of the bladder involves both the central somatic and the autonomic nervous system.
small bladder capacity.
the Vincent curtsy sign.
the hold maneuver.
all of the above.
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
Small bladder capacity with incontinence
Large bladder capacity with poor bladder emptying
Small bladder capacity with frequent voiding
Hyperreflexic bladder with reduced bladder capacity
None of the above
All of the above
Urinary tract infection (UTI)
Surgical intervention is a consideration when the child is older.
There is a high rate of spontaneous resolution of the VUR.
Radiologic studies of the upper urinary tract are not necessary.
A urodynamic study is warranted for appropriate management of any underlying bladder dysfunction.
The risk of breakthrough UTI is minimal on prophylactic antibiotic therapy.
Ambulatory urodynamic study
Radiograph of lumbar spine
Natural fill urodynamics can only be performed via a suprapubic catheter.
Detrusor response may be inhibited during conventional fill urodynamic studies.
Urodynamic studies are used to describe the physiologic parameters involved in the bladder mechanics during voiding only.
Conventional fill studies are performed during ambulatory urodynamics.
During video-urodynamics the child is allowed to run freely within a private cubicle.
pelvic floor rehabilitation.
Low leak-point pressure
Poor bladder compliance
Marked reduction in bladder emptying efficiency
Reduced functional bladder capacity
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