surgical trauma during abdominal hysterectomy.
surgical trauma during vaginal hysterectomy.
none of the above.
cystocele repair with bladder neck suspension.
radiotherapy for cervical cancer.
incidentally noted and repaired iatrogenic cystotomy during hysterectomy.
all of the above.
locally advanced vaginal cancer.
the absence of blue-stained fluid in the operative field following the administration of intravenous indigo carmine eliminates any possibility of a urinary tract injury.
the incidence of iatrogenic bladder injury during hysterectomy is approximately 0.5% to 1.0%.
approximately 0.1% to 0.2% of individuals undergoing hysterectomy develops a VVF.
all of the above are true.
the risk of ureterovaginal fistula is greater than the risk of VVF in this setting.
usually smaller and simpler to repair than those associated with gynecologic surgery.
typically found in multiparous women.
the most common etiology of VVF in Nigeria.
never associated with simultaneous rectovaginal fistula.
usually located at the vaginal apex.
voiding cystourethrography (VCUG).
cystoscopy and possible biopsy.
CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis.
50% of cases.
0.01% of cases.
25% of cases.
0.1% of cases.
10% of cases.
the best chance to repair this fistula is with immediate surgical intervention.
the use of an adjuvant flap will not be necessary.
a vaginal approach is not indicated.
the optimal timing for repair of this fistula may be in 5 to 6 months.
the success rate for the repair of this fistula is similar to that of a nonradiated VVF.
is the preferred approach in all patients with VVF.
is associated with less morbidity and a shorter hospital stay than the vaginal approach.
has a higher success rate than the vaginal approach.
is more often associated with postoperative vaginal shortening and dyspareunia than the vaginal approach.
is suitable for the use of an omental interpositional flap.
may be accomplished with a three- or four-layer closure.
is not indicated for obstetric-related fistula.
is contraindicated if the fistula tract is within 2â•¯cm of the ureter.
is most often bolstered with use of a gracilis flap.
requires the use of nonabsorbable suture.
excision of the fistula tract.
adequate postoperative urinary drainage.
use of well-vascularized tissue flaps.
Preoperative administration of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics improves the success rate of all types of VVF repair.
None of the above.
Preoperative administration of topical estrogens improves the success rate of transvaginal VVF repair.
Preoperative administration of topical estrogens improves tissue quality prior to the repair of VVF.
Suprapubic bladder drainage is superior to urethral (Foley) catheter drainage in preventing surgical failure following VVF repair.
none of the above.
fistulae located at the vaginal cuff.
urinary urgency and frequency.
recurrence of the fistula.
stress urinary incontinence.
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