CT with and without contrast enhancement.
Bosniak IV cyst.
Bosniak III cyst.
Bosniak II cyst.
Renal cell carcinoma
They rarely require treatment.
They are best characterized using the Bosniak criteria to assess risk of harboring a malignancy.
They are best imaged using ultrasound to allow classification using the Bosniak criteria.
They can harbor internal septa, calcifications, and internal debris and still be considered benign according to the Bosniak classification.
They are the most common benign renal lesions found in the kidney.
Recent studies suggest that renal adenoma may be a premalignant precursor of papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
They can be high grade or low grade, as long as they are less than 3 cm.
There is uniform agreement regarding the clinical and pathologic classification of renal adenoma.
They are most common in young females.
They are usually of clear cell histology but can also be found with chromophobe and papillary cells as well.
can be confirmed by electron microscopy.
requires specific immunohistochemical staining.
can be rendered only if tumor size is less than 1.0 cm.
can be made primarily on the basis of histologic criteria.
is commonly made at autopsy.
Renal exploration, partial nephrectomy with intraoperative frozen section analysis of histology (if malignant, a radical nephrectomy)
A radical nephrectomy with adrenalectomy
A radical nephrectomy without adrenalectomy
Renal exploration with biopsy and intraoperative frozen section analysis determining radical versus partial nephrectomy
laparoscopic exposure and renal cryoablation.
They are complex cystic lesions that are typically classified as Bosniak II.
They are characterized by bimodal age distribution.
They are malignant 2% to 5% of the time.
They are more common in men than in women.
They are readily differentiated from RCC on the basis of appropriate imaging studies.
characteristic appearance on MRI.
specific pattern on immunostain marker panel.
peak incidence in the fifth decade of life.
benign clinical course.
Aneurysmal changes on renal arteriogram
Hyperechoic pattern on ultrasonography
Positive signal on T2-weighted images of MRI
Small area of less than −20 HU on nonenhanced CT
Enhancement of more than 30 Hounsfield units (HU) on CT
Tumor size less than 3 cm
Low to moderate grade
An 11-cm cyst with water density and a homogeneous nature
A 5.0-cm cyst with thin, curvilinear calcification
A 3.0-cm tumor with fat associated with calcification
A 2.5-cm hyperechoic complex cyst, with no enhancement after intravenous administration of a contrast agent
A 6.0-cm complex cyst with four thin septa
trisomy of chromosomes 7 and 17.
multiple mitochondria on electron microscopy.
central, stellate scar on CT.
a spoke-wheel pattern on renal angiography.
multiple microsomes on electron microscopy.
a unique cytokeratin expression pattern.
positive staining for HMB-45.
positive staining for vimentin.
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