secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.
conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
secretion of angiotensinogen by the liver.
conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary.
the adrenal gland.
diminished potassium delivery to the distal tubule.
diminished stretch of the afferent arteriole.
β-adrenergic stimulation of the kidney.
diminished chloride delivery to the distal tubule.
is a nonspecific enzyme that has several functions in vivo.
is the only enzyme in the formation of angiotensin II that cannot be pharmacologically modulate
forms angiotensin I from angiotensinogen.
is the major enzyme for degradation of angiotensin II.
is a specific enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
cardiac muscle hypertrophy.
secretion of epinephrine.
secretion of aldosterone.
efferent arteriolar vasodilatation.
efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction.
main renal artery vasoconstriction.
afferent arteriolar vasodilatation.
afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction.
a close resemblance to human clinical renovascular hypertension.
dynamic change through different pathophysiologic phases.
the late renin-dependent phase of hypertension.
the early volume-dependent phase of hypertension.
constant sensitivity to ACE inhibition.
frequently contributes to deterioration of renal function in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.
is usually managed by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.
occurs mainly in young patients with fibrous renal artery disease.
is usually managed by exploration and immediate surgical repair.
is a benign phenomenon, usually limited to the lower extremities, that rarely involves the kidney.
is only significant if stenosis is more than 70%.
should be excluded in every patient with high blood pressure.
is exclusively the result of renal artery atherosclerosis.
is only significant if associated with other vascular (e.g., aortic) disease.
indicates that surgical or endovascular repair is necessary.
is usually confirmed through laboratory testing.
is based on wide radiologic screening of asymptomatic patients.
is generally not pursued in azotemic patients.
is based on radiologic confirmation of clinically suspicious cases.
can be confirmed by clinical examination alone.
intraoperative digital subtraction angiography.
magnetic resonance angiography.
rapid sequence intravenous urography.
is not useful as a screening test for patients where renal artery stenosis is suspected.
has the advantage of mobility, widespread availability, noninvasiveness, and no effect on renal function.
is limited by the need to transport patients to an imaging facility.
has the advantage of providing excellent anatomic detail.
can provide all the necessary information for treatment of patients with ischemic nephropathy.
is an invasive diagnostic modality that is especially useful in patients with renal insufficiency.
is associated with a higher incidence of arterial wall trauma than is standard angiography.
is associated with a high incidence of allergic complications and gas embolism.
cannot be used if angioplasty is contemplate.
is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that minimizes the risk associated with iodinated contrast angiography.
is the best chance for maintaining renal function.
is appropriate therapy for young patients with ischemic nephropathy.
is generally preferred for children.
is appropriate therapy for older patients with mild hypertension.
rarely succeeds in controlling hypertension.
rarely provides long-term therapeutic benefit even in properly selected cases.
is indicated for bilateral renal artery stenosis, provided that total renal function is normal.
should be performed exclusively using open surgical technique and not laparoscopically.
is indicated for hypertension caused by a unilateral, small, poorly functioning kidney.
is usually indicated in cases of ischemic nephropathy rather than renovascular hypertension.
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