A localised pathological process involving the demineralisation of hard tooth tissue, caused by the action of bacteria on fermentable carbohydrates in the diet.
The aetiology of caries
'The Acidogenic Theory' Miller 1850
Describe the acidogenic theory
Acids are produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates. The acids are responsible for the demineralisation of dental hard tissue.
Name the three factors that are considered to make caries a multifactorial disease and give example of each.
1. Personal factors - education, income, socioeconomic status and behaviours
2. The oral environment - fluoride ions present, saliva flow and composition, prosthesis present
3. Keyes circles - factors that directly relate to caries development
What is the normal pH of the oral cavity, the critical pH and the critical pH of the root?
The critical point of 6.2pH makes roots much more susceptible to _____
List three ways in which fluoride can reduce the development of dental caries
1. Increases the resistance of the enamel to demineralisation by the formation of fluorapatite
2. Fluoride reservoir promotes remineralisation
3. Inhibits acid generation from plaque bacteria glycolysis
Bacterial infiltration can lead to ________ damage to the tooth
Plaque bacteria can be described as ________ and _________
What is meant by the term Acidogenic? Give an example of such bacteria.
Bacteria that are able to produce acids from the metabolism of dietary carbohydrates
What is meant by the term Aciduric?
-Bacteria which thrive in low pH environments
How can cavitation be treated?
Restoration of the tooth surface
Name the four Keyes Circles.
1. Plaque Micro organisms
2. Substrate (Dietry carbohydrates
4. Susceptible tooth
Plaque microorganisms - What is the role of plaque Microorganisms in caries?
- Bacteria produce acids from the metabolism of dietary carbohydrates
Plaque microorganisms - Which is the most cariogenic bacteria and why?
- Strep. Mutans
- Synthesis dextran which bind plaque, increasing the biofilm matrix
- Store intercellular polysaccharides for use when substrate not available, maintaining the acidic pH of biofilm
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