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Microbes and Nutrients Reading

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Dieser et al. 2010 (Antarctica)*

Yallop et al. 2012 (Greenland)

Laybourn et al. 2012 (ice sheets)*

Hawkins et al. 2016 (Greenland)

Benning et al. 2014

Takeuchi et al. 2013

Vetake et al. 2010

Bagshaw et al. 2001

Skidmore et al. 2000

Barletta and Roe 2011

Siegert et al. 2002

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subglacial lake = low nutrient, low microbial diversity

Ice algae abundant below the snow line. moves with the line

solute conc cryoconite holes = respiration autumn, photosynthesis summer

more algae, higher altitudes, flushed at lower

Warming up, microbes up

Pigment Study: carotenoid pigment increased resistence to freeze thaw and solar radiation. Antarctic bacteria have increased resistance.

Darkening of ice reduces albedo and increases melt

3 macro environments: in vien, on grain surface, in ice crystal

P released = Mississippi = 400,000tons p/yr

Volcanisms releases water full of microbes into the glacier. volcanoes under greeland and Lake Vostok (Antarctica)

Glacier bed: aerobes o2 from o2 rich basal melt of supraglacial melt


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