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estabolishing resting membrane potential at rest

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so more K+ ions flow out of channels and down K+ concentration gradient

however the forces are acting in the same direction as there is more Na+ in the cell interior.

membrane is 50-100 x more permeable to K+ than Na+

some ions can cross membrane through leakage

therefore pulling K+ ions back into the membrane do to its positive charge

the same 2 forces acting on Na+

that are open all the time and are specific

this builds negative charge inside of the membrane

this is called the electrochemical gradient

EFC rich in Na+ and Cl-

membrane is impermeable to -vely charged proteins


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