Law and Law


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Statute Law

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Statute Law

How a Bill becomes a Law: (House of Rep):

Royal Assent:

Common Law:


Civil Law:

Tort Law:



Criminal Law:




Summary Offences:

Indictable Offences:

Principal Offender:

Actus Reus:

Mens Rea:

Presumption of innocence

Burden of proof:

Standard of proof:





Defendant of accused:


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The presumption of innocence is the principle that one is considered innocent unless proven guilty.

The party that initiates or commences a civil action against another party.

The person in a group of offenders who acts out the crime

Criminal law refers to a body of laws that apply to criminal acts.

is a person accused of committing a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.

A person or thing causing inconvenience or annoyance.

A previous case or example that is used as a guide for making a decision when similar circumstances arise.

Any wrongdoing for which an action for damages may be brought.

The intention or knowledge of wrongdoing that constitutes part of a crime, as opposed to the action or conduct of the accused.

make a physical attack on.

In criminal trials it is ‘beyond all reasonable doubt.’

Approval given by the Governor- General as a representative of the crown for a Bill to become official law.

the crime of killing a human being without malice aforethought, or in circumstances not amounting to murder.

someone who gives assistance to the perpetrator of a crime without taking part in it.

the unlawful premeditated killing of one human being by another.

A type of civil action where one party makes false statements that causes another party to lose their reputation.

Law made and passed by parliament

Crimes which can only be heard and decided by a magistrate in the magistrates court are called summary offences.

Negligence is a failure to take reasonable care to avoid causing injury or loss to another person.

A body of rights, obligations, and remedies that is applied by courts in civil proceedings to provide relief for persons who have suffered harm from the wrongful acts of others.

Indictable offences are divided into major indictable offences and minor indictable offences.

he first reading, second reading, House committee, Consideration and detail, third reading, Bill

Entry to a person's land or property without permission.

The burden of proof (onus of proof) relates to the question of which party has to prove the facts of the case.

Law that protects individuals, typically dealing with disputes over an action that results in loss or harm.

Law created when a judge makes a ruling about a case that is not covered by statuary law.

Action or conduct which is a constituent element of a crime, as opposed to the mental state of the accused.