Epidemiology and Society and Health


Question 1 of 1

  Time Left


Society and Health Overview 2

Fill in the blanks  


-biological and physiological characteristics of a person.

-behaviours, roles, expectations and activities in society of a person.

refers to male or female whereas

refers to masculine and feminine

Concepts of class:

• the capitalist state of production consists of 2 main classes: i. bourgeoisie (the capitalist who owns the means of production aka the boss) ii. And the proletariat (the working class, those who must sell their own labour power).

• concept of class: a person’s culture, level of education, hobbies and interests determine which class a person belongs to, and the difference in these lead to the differences in class.

-• “wear and tear” on the body. It grows overtime, when the person is exposed to repeated or chronic stress.

What is shame?

• Shame is a subjective emotional response characterised by negative moral judgements about oneself.

-feeling bad about something you’ve done or the way you look

- feeling bad about who you are as a person.

stigma- how we feel about ourselves.

stigma- how we are viewed and treated by others.

Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Illegal Immigrants:

: Someone fleeing persecution in their country of origin, has arrived in the UK and applied to the Home Office for asylum.

: Someone whose asylum application has been successful and has been recognised by the Home Office as being at risk of persecution on return to their country of origin.

‘Failed' asylum seeker: Someone whose asylum application has been refused by the

and who has no further legal right of appeal. Human rights campaigners prefer the term ‘refused’ asylum seeker.

Irregular or undocumented migrant: There is no generally accepted definition. This could include someone who has arrived in the UK and not made themselves known to the authorities, someone who is not complying with the terms of their leave, or someone who has remained in the UK after existing leave or temporary admission has expired. Some people may be able to regularise their status.

Illegal immigrant: Generally accepted to be an

term. Frequently used by politicians and in the media. Most irregular or undocumented migrants haven’t broken the criminal law, but have failed to comply with administrative procedures.

Economic migrant: Someone who has moved to another country to work or to find work.

Treatment tourist/health tourist: Someone who travels to the UK for the express purpose of accessing free NHS medical treatment. Migrant: Could be anyone who has moved across a border.

UK asylum process:


UK Border Agency takes applicant’s personal details and checks if they have previously claimed asylum in UK or Europe

2. Few days later, the applicant will be asked to attend a

3. Within next couple of weeks, ‘substantive interview’, or ‘asylum interview’ is held. Here, applicant has opportunity to describe to case owner their story and their fear of own country.

4. Asylum seekers may be asked to attend regular reporting meetings with local UK Border Agency staff at all stages of the asylum process. The UK Border Agency also uses telephone reporting systems and electronic tagging of asylum seekers.

5. After the screening interview, some applicants are taken to Harmondsworth Immigration Removal Centre or Yarl’s Wood Immigration Removal Centre, where their application is ‘fast-tracked’. They are held in detention while a decision is made on their application within seven days. In these cases the entire decision-making and appeals process can be completed within nine days.

Refugee Status and Humanitarian Protection:

• If someone is granted refugee status: They will be granted

years leave to remain, they will be granted full entitlement to access services, benefits to work etc. I.e. they are granted the same entitlements as a UK citizen.

Instead of refuges status, a person may be granted

Discretionary Leave: • Someone applying under ARTICLE 8 (see previous slides) may be granted discretionary leave, and this is often for a lesser time, 30 months is usual. This carries lesser entitlements.

Once refugee status has ended, or discretionary leave has accrued for up to 10 years then someone can apply for indefinite leave to remain.

Homeless people:

Homeless people attend A&E

times as much, are admitted 3 times as often, and stay 3 times as long as the general public. Overall they cost

times as much

The average age of death of homeless men is just

and for women it is

•1/3 of deaths caused by drug and alcohol • Homeless people 9 times more likely to commit suicide • RTAs 3 times as likely • Infections 2 times as likely

Maslow's hierarchy of need:



Domestic violence:

and 784,000 men between 16 and 59 in England and Wales suffered domestic violence in 2010/11

of women have experience domestic violence at some point in their lives

• 17% of men have experience domestic violence at some point in their lives • There are many causes: o Honour-based violence, forced marriage, ostracising the female o Alcohol and illicit drugs o Advocacy, perpetrator programmes, structured follow-up o Links to Mental Health system, legal system, criminal justice system

The NHS system:

£65 billion of the NHS £100 billion budget is going to organisations called

• CCGs are made of GPs, but there’s also representatives from nursing, the public and hospital doctors. Their job is to try to improve the health of their bit of the population.

• They can commission services from a range of different organisations including hospitals, community health services, and the private and voluntary sectors.

• All of these have to be registered with the health care regulators, the Care Quality Commission and Monitor.

• Two different bodies that support them. o 20 commissioning support units: crunch data, they can do contract negotiations and some technical contract management. o Clinical senates is to bring together a whole range of medical professions to offer advice to CCGs on particular patient groups or conditions.

NHS does

enough money to continue to act as it does currently

QALY: (Quality Adjusted Life Year) is a generic measure of disease burden, including both the quality and quantity of life lived.

DALY: (Disability Adjusted Life Year) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.