Entomology

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Swarming in Locusts

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At first the gregarious and solitary morphs were thought to be one species according to

proved them to be the same species

the two species which are known to swarm are (in alphabetical order)

Schistocera gregaria

showed that small populations on clumped vegetation are more gregarious than large populations on evenly spread despite sparse vegetation

found that the intengument of the locust is covered in

These hairs were sitmulated for

seconds every

seconds, for

hours. The femur was found to elicit

% gregariousness.

found that the changes in the first two hours were correlated with an increase in the neurotransmitter

in the

serotonin in the thoracic ganglion was measured at 0, 1 and 2 hours using

Levels of serotonin were correlated with degree of gregariousness over all time frames. Both gregariousness from mechanorectors and olfactory pathways converge on the

showed a preference for plants containing an anti-predator alkaloid in mid-shift individuals v

showed that if the foam was washed off the eggs laid by a gregarious female the offspring would not show the same affinity for gregariousness. However these results were contradicted by

studied the feeding preferences between the two morphs. She found that learned aversions were lost after the switch to gregariousness but other associations weren't.

provided evidence that there is a change in expression of 532 genes between the two morphs.

has been associated with the colour change of the shift, inducing melanin but not with the behavioural



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