Dyslexia and specific language impairment


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Dyslexia has been defined as an impairment in the ability to read and write, not resulting from low intelligence

Around 7.4 per cent of children have specific language impairment

There is a lack of public awareness of specific language impairment

They are distinct developmental disorders but they are potentially comorbid

A deficit in phonological processing is closely associated with dyslexia but not with specific language impairment

Phonological deficit hypothesis

The disorders do not always co-occur

Specific language is heterogeneous meaning it has multiple causes and is best explained by genetic and environmental factors

Contemporary researchers often regard the disorders as manifestations of the same underlying problem that differ only in severity or developmental stage

Tested over one hundred 6-13 year olds with dyslexia and over half of them also met the specific language impairment criteria

There is not a good agreement on what specific language impairment actually is

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Bishop and Snowling (2004)

Catts et al (2005)

McArthur et al (2000)

Ramus et al (2013)

Bishop (2016)

Catts et al

Bishop (2016)

Snowling (1991)

The Oxford Dictionary of Psychology (2015)

Tomblin et al (1997)

Bishop (2006)