Criminology

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0 [{"id":495272,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-07-02 13:14:04","updated_at":"2018-07-02 13:14:04","questionName":"According to Freud, the learned dictates of the social system are called: ","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"Freud identified a three-part structure to human personality: the id (the drive for food, sex, and other life-sustaining things), the superego (the conscience which develops when learned values become incorporated into a person's behavior), and the ego (the \"I\" or the product of the interaction between what a person wants and what his conscience will allow him to do to achieve what he wants).","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":495263,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-07-02 12:59:03","updated_at":"2018-07-02 12:59:03","questionName":"________ theories hold that criminality is a function of individual socialization and the social-psychological interactions people have with the various organizations, institutions, and processes of society.","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"Social process theories hold that criminality is a function of individual socialization and the social-psychological interactions people have with the various organizations, institutions, and processes of society.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":494507,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-06-27 14:01:50","updated_at":"2018-06-27 14:01:50","questionName":"Behavioral studies show that punishment is the least effective method of changing behavior.","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"Behavioral studies, such as those conducted by Skinner, show that punishment is the least effective method of changing behavior. Punishing brings \"a temporary suppression of the behavior,\" but only with constant supervision and application. In repeated experiments, Skinner found that punishment-either applying a negative stimulus, or taking away a positive one-effectively extinguished a subject's behavior, but that the behavior returned \"when the punishment was discontinued and eventually all responses came out\" again.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":494514,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-06-27 14:19:20","updated_at":"2018-06-27 14:19:20","questionName":"Freud defines biological urges and wants as","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"Freud identified a three-part structure to human personality: the id (the drive for food, sex, and other life-sustaining things), the superego (the conscience which develops when learned values become incorporated into a person's behavior), and the ego (the \"I\" or the product of the interaction between what a person wants and what his conscience will allow him to do to achieve what he wants).","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":494517,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-06-27 14:21:41","updated_at":"2018-06-27 14:21:41","questionName":"Which early pioneer in criminology developed the theory of the \"criminal man\"? ","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"The foundations of biological theory were laid by Cesare Lombroso, an Italian doctor, who insisted that there were \"born\" criminals, people who were atavistic, that is throwbacks to more primitive human types. Lombroso spent his career measuring the bodies of offenders and concluded that they were marked by a high degree of asymmetry, with such things as sloping foreheads and other \"anomalies.\" Later critics would point out that Lombroso used no control group-that is he did not measure people who were not criminals, and if he had done so he would have found that they shared equally in those kinds of traits that Lombroso presumed were indicative of criminal propensities.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":495264,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-07-02 13:01:13","updated_at":"2018-07-02 13:01:13","questionName":"Essentially, control theory argues that the institutions of the social system train and press those with whom they are in contact into patterns of __________.","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"Essentially, control theory argues that the institutions of the social system train and press those with whom they are in contact into patterns of conformity. Schools train for adjustment in society, peers press the ethos of success and conventional behavior, and parents strive to inculcate law-abiding habits in their youngsters. The theory rests on the thesis that to the extent a person fails to become attached to the variety of control agencies of the society, his or her chances of violating the law are increased. This doctrine edges very close to being self-evident in its insistence that close affiliation with law-abiding people, groups, and organizations is predictive of law-abiding behavior, but it is notably rich with subordinate statements, some of them far from obvious.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":495285,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-07-02 14:19:46","updated_at":"2018-07-02 14:19:46","questionName":"According to the differential reinforcement theory, the extent that criminal behavior is perpetrated by a person depends on the degree to which that person has been either rewarded or punished for behavior.","questionTimeSeconds":"0","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"According to the differential reinforcement theory, people learn social behavior by operant conditioning, behavior controlled by stimuli that follow the behavior. Behavior is reinforced when positive rewards are gained or punishment is avoided (negative reinforcement). It is weakened by negative stimuli (punishment) and loss of reward (negative punishment). Whether deviant or criminal behavior is begun or persists depends on the degree to which it has been rewarded or punished and the rewards or punishments attached to its alternatives. This is the theory of differential reinforcement.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":494505,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-06-27 14:00:43","updated_at":"2018-06-27 14:00:43","questionName":"When a detective searches for a suspect's motive, the detective is using behaviorist methods of analysis.","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"When a detective searches for a suspect's motive, the detective is using behaviorist methods of analysis. The suspect, it is assumed, was stimulated by some arrangement of factors. Many courses in criminology are built around the fundamental premise that crimes are particular sorts of behavior and best understood as the product of operant conditioning.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":494508,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-06-27 14:03:02","updated_at":"2018-06-27 14:03:02","questionName":"Punishment is the most effective method for changing criminal behavior.","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"Behavioral studies, such as those conducted by Skinner, show that punishment is the least effective method of changing behavior. Punishing brings \"a temporary suppression of the behavior,\" but only with constant supervision and application. In repeated experiments, Skinner found that punishment--either applying a negative stimulus, or taking away a positive one--effectively extinguished a subject's behavior, but that the behavior returned \"when the punishment was discontinued and eventually all responses came out\" again.\r\n","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":494512,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-06-27 14:16:39","updated_at":"2018-06-27 14:16:39","questionName":"Altering citizens' behavior by manipulating access to valued resources or threatening to impose sanctions is known as social control.","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"Altering citizens' behavior by manipulating access to valued resources or threatening to impose sanctions is known as social control. Once again, the concept is that reward and punishment are what cause people to obey the law. People maximize their personal gain and comply based on deterrence.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":494518,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-06-27 14:23:04","updated_at":"2018-06-27 14:23:04","questionName":"The differential reinforcement theory is a combination of the work of sociologists Edwin Sutherland and B. F. Skinner.","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"Differential reinforcement theory is another attempt to explain crime as a type of learned behavior. It is a revision of Sutherland's work that incorporates elements of psychological learning theory popularized by B. F. Skinner and social learning theory. The theory was summarized by Ronald Akers in his 1977 work, Deviant Behavior: A Social Learning Approach.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":494516,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-06-27 14:20:20","updated_at":"2018-06-27 14:20:20","questionName":"In the United States, the best-known explanation regarding crime causation is","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"The theory of differential association is undoubtedly the best-known among all explanations offered in the United States to account for crime, though it too has been widely criticized on the grounds that it is just about impossible to test. The theory first appeared as a systematic formulation in 1939 in the third edition of Edwin H. Sutherland's Principles of Criminology. Later, Sutherland would make his best-known contribution to criminology by coining the phrase white-collar crime and writing a monograph on the subject.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":495283,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-07-02 14:17:42","updated_at":"2018-07-02 14:17:42","questionName":"Some criminologists think that crime rates are relatively stable; that is, the motivation to commit crime and the supply of willing offenders is fairly constant. This theory of crime is called the","questionTimeSeconds":"0","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"A variation of the classical theory, routine activities theory holds that both the motivation to commit crime and the supply of willing offenders is constant; there always will be a certain number of people motivated by greed, lust, and other pro-crime forces. The determining factor in predatory crimes (violent and theft-related crimes) is the activities of the potential victims. There are purportedly three variables: \r\n* Availability of suitable targets \r\n* Absence of capable guardians (such as homeowners) \r\n* Presence of motivated offenders (such as unemployed teenagers)\r\n","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":495284,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-07-02 14:18:57","updated_at":"2018-07-02 14:18:57","questionName":"Many critics today claim that one reason for significant white-collar crime is its \"mild\" punishment. Which philosophy claims that offenders will calculate potential gains and losses before they decide to disobey the law?","questionTimeSeconds":"0","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"Utilitarianism, first developed by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham, remains a much-favored approach to crime, with its assumption that offenders will calculate potential gains and losses before they decide to disobey the law. The U.S. Sentencing Commission proposals are based almost totally on this idea, mandating that monetary penalties be calculated at a level that will induce companies to conclude that breaking the law is not fiscally appealing.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null},{"id":494511,"quiz_id":"25380","answer_id":null,"answerType_id":"0","created_at":"2018-06-27 14:15:51","updated_at":"2018-06-27 14:15:51","questionName":"Behavioral studies show that ___________ is the least effective method of changing behavior.","questionTimeSeconds":"15","questionTimeMinutes":"1","questionImagePath":null,"position":null,"explanation":"Behavioral studies, such as those conducted by Skinner, show that punishment is the least effective method of changing behavior. Punishing brings \"a temporary suppression of the behavior,\" but only with constant supervision and application. In repeated experiments, Skinner found that punishment-either applying a negative stimulus, or taking away a positive one-effectively extinguished a subject's behavior, but that the behavior returned \"when the punishment was discontinued and eventually all responses came out\" again.","question_score_id":null,"lang":"","questionAudioPath":null}]
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According to Freud, the learned dictates of the social system are called:

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