The five most common types of cases dealt with at the European Court of Justice

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Preliminary ruling procedure

Proceedings for failure to fulfill an obligation

Actions for annulment

Direct actions

Actions for failure to act

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When the European Parliament, the Council of the EU or the Commission fail to make certain decisions under a certain circumstances.

Any individual or company who has suffered damage as a result of the action or inaction of the EU or its staff.

When a national court is in doubt about the interpretation or validity of an EU law they are applying to the case, they sometimes ask the European Court of Justice for advice.

When the commission or the European Parliament believes a particular EU law is illegal

When the European Court of Justice investigates allegations put forward by the commission about Member States they believe are failing to fulfill their obligations under the EU law.