Biological Rhythms: Circadian, Infradian and Ultradian Rhythms

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Match the infradian and ultradian rhythms studies to their explanations

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Ultradian-Dement and Kleitman (1957)

Infradian-Russell et al (1980)

Infradian-Free will/determinism

Infradian- Real world application

Ultradian- Sleep stages

Infradian- consequences of the menstrual cycle

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Samples of sweat from women were wiped under the noses of other women and their periods synced up. This suggests that pheromones can also influence menstruation.

The BARC shows that sleep stages are part of a 90 minute continuum. The 90 minute cycles are probably a form of timing to ensure that the biological processes work in unison, like a conductor in an orchestra.

Woke participants up during REM sleep. They usually reported dreams, however dreams were also found in other sleep stages and those in REM did not always report dreams.

PMS is a set of symptoms that start before a period. Dr Katharina Dalton argues that this should be classified with mental illness and individuals should not be held responsible for their actions. It has been used in court as a defence.

Used to be recognised as a psychological problem (it's all in your head) but is now respected as a physiological problem.

SAD is treated with phototherapy. 32% of people improved with a placebo, however.


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