SOURCES - EARLY PRINCIPATE
Livy (59-17BC) - friends with augustus and annalistic! Dionysus of Halicarnassus (60-7 BC) - Greek historian also contemporary with augustus. trained and taught rhetoric in rome so histories he read while there are probably what he based his work on.
SOURCES - JULIO-CLAUDIAN DYNASTY - 1ST CENTURY AD
Tacitus writing AD 100-110 HISTORIAN, anti monarchy, writing under Flavians, was tribune of the plebs at one point. Suetonius AD 120 BIOGRAPHER - character-based, all from character's persepctive, worked in imperial household, physiognomics. Cassius Dio (225 AD) HISTORIAN consul, friend of Severan dynasty therefore biased, writing a long time after 1st century - copying what he sees.
SOURCES - THE HIGH EMPIRE
Cassius Dio (225); Pliny the Younger - wrote panegyricus for Trajan; Historia Augusta (395) - emperors from Hadrian to Carinus, schol analysis says written much later than 395, likely medieval times. mostly made up. imitates Suetonius. Puts down good things e.g. Hadrian beard blemishes.
SOURCES - 4TH CENTURY PAGAN (2)
Historia Augustus (395), under Theodosius. Aurelius Victor BIOGRAPHER - writing under Constantius 2nd, shows change in attitude e.g. Hadrian bad because of sexuality having Antinous boyfriend, this then influences other people's opinions on Hadrian.
SOURCES - 4TH CENTURY CHRISTIAN (2)
Eusebius - 337/9 - under Constantine 1st, wrote a panegyrical for C, bishop, written after C's death but info is from him; Lactantius - 314/5 - under Constantine 1st, 20 years before Eusebius, adviser to C, tutored his son Crispus. Therefore should know about vision in sky but only mentions C's dream in his works.
EARLY REPUBLIC: Populus excludes women (Aullus Gellius), slaves and foreigners (civil war 212AD). PRINCIPATE: Slaves have no legal rights even over life/death (different to Greece), Antoninous Pius banned killing slaves without just cause later. Captured on foreign conquests. Piracy - Delos. Liberti become citizens - unlike Greece. Nero law change. Elite otium. Seneca quote. Mass entertainment? Lower class otium. Words for pub. Suetonius. JULIA DOMNA - cultural patron. hairstyle. Macrinus.
Aullus Gellius "women are incapable of governing their own affairs". Nero allowed slaves to campaign about mistreatment. Elite otium = realted to pax and concordia, i.e. peace. Reading, writing, dining, hunting. Seneca "Otium without literature is death." Elite were not allowed to enjoy mass entertainment shows e.g. gladiatorial shows as otium however were the ones to organise and fund it. Lower class otium included going to the taberna, which is sneered at by our poets. 9 words for pub, 120 in pompeii. Suetonius criticises Nero for drinking about town rather than in private. Julia Domna advised her sons when they were in power. She was a cultral patron, encouraged the second sophistic - shows her influence. Hairstyle v popular and helps to date many 3rd century statues. Shows women accepted in authority. MAcrinus, the successor of her son who sent her away when she campaigned against his succession, was hated by all the people. shows her popularity despite being a woman how an emperor was treated because of his treatment of her.
Emperors: Nero, Trajan, Hadrian.
Literature: Plautus, Terrence.
Art and arch: Sack of Corinth 146; upper classes; temple of Hercules Victor; Hadrian.
EVAL: 3rd/4th reject greek look; Theodosius ban pagansim.
Nero: music and theatre; saw reinaissance in culture, including work from Seneca, our only survivng tragedian.
Trajan: desired to expand empire because Alex said should be surrounded by natural borders - framing the empire on alex's views.
Hadrian: philhellenism, told the rich in each province he visited that they should build buildings. Temple of Olympian Zeus, Library of Hadrian, Arch of Hadrian.
Literature: Plautus c.190s BC took inspiration from Greek comedians such as Menander and adapted them to Roman ideas. Terrence, c.160s BC based his work on Greek plays to the extent where it was more of a translation.
Art and arch: Sack of Corinth 146 BC brought Greek ideas and culture to Rome. Many Greeks moved to Rome because it then became centre of wealth and power. Upper classes saw it as desirable to have knowledge and be able to show off Greek art. Temple of Hercules Victor in Forum Boarium from 2nd century BC had greek design (round and colonaded); material (pentelic marble) and architecht! Refer back to Hadrian.
EVAL: tetrarchs rejected Greek philosopher look with beard nd went for more militaristic looks, e.g. short cropped hair. as did most emperors in 3rd and 4th centuries.
EVAL: rise of Christianity meant that there was a rejection of paganism thus temples and greek culture etc. Theodosius banned paganism in 391 and the Olympics in 393.
FOUNDING OF ROME - evaluating the evidence.
All evidence under Augustus.
Appropriating Greek ideas.
Lapis Niger, Forum Romanum.
Each king reigned for around 30 years each - too convenient.
Each king had their own area which they contributed to e.g. Numa Pompilius solidifed religious beliefs; Tullus Hostilius reorganised the army - too simplistic.
All evidence under Augustus - Ovid tells us that Iulus' vestal virgin Silvia was raped by Mars leading to R&R being exposed; Livy tells us Tullus Hostilius "one object was to find cause for renewed military adventure." and that Tarquin the Proud "could only rule by fear." this is 700 years later!!
Appropriating Greek ideas: Tarquin the proud expelled by Romans 509 BC; this is 2 year before Athens are known to expel their tyranny in 507 BC.
Lapis Niger "recei" from 599 BC - no other evidence says this means king, assumption, therefore weak.
Pottery from Forum Romanum "rex" - king but no other evidence for this found in area either. Suspicious find.
Reception of Rome
Latin - Western Catholic church, naturalised expression, Wilfred Owen/Horace;
Imitatio - Shakespeare's plays: Midsummer Night's Dream/ Ovid Met.; Julius Caear/ JC (but also set contemp to Shakespeare's times);
SPQR; still found in Italy - drain covers, bins - city working for people.
Julius Caesar/ George Bush - Iraq invasion, tyranny link, forcing war "Crossed his Rubicon."
Religion - The republic
12 Olympian gods
Sheep livers- Piacenza bronze, c. 100 BC.
Movement of birds.
Cicero: "divinded into ritual and auspices...third category prophetic warnings of the Sibylline books."
Religion - 1st century AD.
Caligula - declared himself a god. AD40 - appeared dressed as various gods.
Nero: Great Fire AD64 - Tacitus
Christians upset Romans.
Tacitus: "Jewish rebels, the Christians, said they were responsible."
Behaviour e.g. no sacrifice believed to upset gods.
Cannibals - spoke of eating body and blood of Christ.
Religion - High Empire
Letter Pliny to Trajan about Christians - refuse to sacrifice or buy meat; gathered in private in large numbers.
Trajan banned religious gatherings.
Christianity = crime so gods didn't punish them.
Hadrian encouraged pagan temples.
Hadrian deified boyfriend Antinous - polytheism.
Pagans worshipped gods mainly outside on steps of the temple, so to have gathering inside was strange.
Religion - 4th century
Tetrarchs Great Persecution 303-311 - papyrus.
AD 300: all Christians forced to sacrifice to state gods; AD 304: persecutions widened to all Christians not just bishops/leaders.
Battle of Milvian bridge fighting under god.
Edict of toleration 313.
Laws against Jews owning Christian slaves
Julian - stopped Christians teaching
Theodosius - assassinated Jews and pagans; 391 banned paganism, destruction of library of Alexander, 393 banned Olympic games.
Art and architecture
MID REPUBLIC - Temple of Hercules Victor, 2nd c. BC.
LATE REPUBLIC - Veristic portraiture, realism;
- Theatre of Pompey: temple to Venus, gardens and art gallery.
HIGH EMPIRE - Trajan's column, AD 113.
- Imperial Fora - extensive building programme, forum built almost 3x size of Augustus.
- Hadrian encouraged rich people to construct buildings.
4TH CENTURY - 'The tetrarchs' c. 300 AD.
- Constantine and Licinius imperial portraiture
- Constantine's arch.
SOURCES - The republic (4)
Cato the Elder (234-149 BC)
Polybius (c. 150 BC)
Livy (59-17 BC)
Cicero (106-43 BC).
Cato the Elder 234- 149 BC - consul and censor
Polybius c.150 BC - Greek hostage in Rome, outsider on the inside, contemporary!
Livy (59-17 BC) - writing later using contemporary evidence available at his time; friends with Augustus; annalistic: events will reoccur if lessons are not learnt.
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