Clive Wearing was a highly educated, highly talented musician and broadcaster who
infection know as encephalitis. This caused major memory disruption. He's still able to talk, read and
and can even (still) sight read music and play quite
piano pieces yet his memory is dramatically impaired; he has no recollection of his
. Clive Wearings case study demonstrates that memory is crucial for our well being and
living. It also shows that our memory is quite a complex part of human
In spite of huge
in his memory for personal
and general knowledge, Clive it still able to walk,
, play music and read and
Which suggests that our memory is not a
He needs to keep a diary
His wife is his fiancé because they've never been married
He's the same age he was when he first lost his memory
That he's only just worken up
He hasn't seen his wife for ages
He cannot use his
A case study supporting the existence of the short term memory is Clive wearing (see next question).
The duration of the short term memory ranges from
seconds. These are encoded
and the short term memory can only hold
+- chunks of information.
It’s been proven that the
memory can only hold a few items at one time and that it’s
is brief. It’s a temporary store and anything we need to remember for longer needs to be
into the long term store. The
peterson effect comes into place here. This is where participants were then given a distractor
, or an event meant to focus their attention elsewhere so they didn't remember the
using strategies like mental rehearsal.
A study devised in order to support the existence of limited
of the short term memory was done by
1959. In this study, participants were shown
for a brief amount of time to remember for one minute. They were then asked to count
in 3’s from a specified number to prevent them from
the words. After, in intervals of 3, 6, 9,
, 15 and
seconds, participants were asked to recall the original
. This was repeated several times with
After 3 seconds,
% of the trigrams were able to recalled however progressively, as the time
lengthened, the number of trigrams that were recalled
seconds, less than 10% of the trigrams were recalled
Short-term memory has a limited duration when
is prevented. It is thought that this information is lost from short-term memory from trace
. The results of the study also show the short-term memory is different from long-term memory in terms of
. Thus supporting the
model of memory.
term memory if the first
that may influence
the amount of information that you can store in the short term memory. An example of this is
study which took place in 1969. The result they found from the study is that when
strings are repeated with in a series of immediate memory span trials, it
becomes easier for people to
them. This proves that when information is stored in the long term memory, it
increases the capacity of the short term memory. Reading
can also affect the capacity because when the information is read
, performance can drop in comparison to reading them
. Also, the fact that numbers can be grouped together
(e.g. with phone numbers) can also affect the performance of a task in a
way- we cluster the numbers rather than remembering them in
string. Lastly, the pronunciation time has been proven to be a
piece of research into the capacity of the short term memory than millers
span; Schweikert and Boruff 1986 tested this using a number of different
(e.g. numbers, colours and shapes) and in Arbic languages for example it may take
to pronounce the colour red therefore, if in a sequence it may be
for them to remember this word because it takes longer to
;people could consistently remember words that took 1.5-2 seconds to pronounce.
rehearsal can affect the duration of the short term memory. As learnt from the
Peterson effect, items disappear from the short term memory only when rehearsal is
and new items can only
their place in the short term memory if older information is lost through decay/
or is transferred to the long term memory through
. When we deliberately intend to
information as well can affect how long we mean to hold information in the
term memory as well. Information from the short term memory can vanish in a matter of a few
if people don’t pay attention to them or make a
it. In correlation to this, the
of information that needs to be retained also can affect the
of the short term memory. If it can be
because they have some sort of
to them then the number of chunks to be remembered instead of the numbers of the
makes it easier.
Deliberate intent to recall information
The amount of information that needs to be retained
너는 정확하게 대답했다.
당신이 잘못 대답했습니다.
너는 시간이 없어.
점수 또는 평점을 저장하려면 로그인하거나 등록해야합니다.
텍스트에 적합한 오디오 언어를 설정하십시오.
단어를 강조 표시하여 학습을 향상시킵니다.
로그인 할 필요없이 퀴즈, 코스 및 플래시 카드를 재생할 수 있습니다. 그러나 점수를 저장하고 퀴즈, 코스 및 플래시 카드를 만들려면 로그인해야합니다. 오디오를 재생하려면 전문 계정에 로그인해야합니다.
학습을 한 차원 높여보십시오. 프로페셔널 계정으로 업그레이드하면 질문을 큰소리로 듣고 다른 많은 혜택을 누릴 수 있습니다.
귀하가 작성한 질문이나 답변에 대한 오디오가 생성됩니다.
많은 사람들이 그들이 배운 것을 듣고 더 잘 배웁니다. 외국어 학습을 위해 우리는 18 개 이상의 언어를 지원했습니다.
지원 언어로는 덴마크어, 네덜란드어, 영어, 프랑스어, 독일어, 아이슬란드 어, 이탈리아어, 일본어, 한국어, 노르웨이어, 폴란드어, 포르투갈어, 루마니아어, 러시아어, 스페인어, 스웨덴어, 터키어, 웨일스 어 등이 있습니다.
또한 단어를 소리내어 읽음으로써 자동 단어 단위 강조 기능을 지원합니다.
Apple App Store에서 볼 Topgrade 응용 프로그램을 선택하십시오.
Google Play에서 볼 수있는 Topgrade 앱을 선택합니다.